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John HOWARD, 1st Duke of Norfolk

John HOWARD, 1st Duke of Norfolk

Male 1420 - 1485  (65 years)

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  • Name John HOWARD 
    Suffix 1st Duke of Norfolk 
    Born 1420 
    Gender Male 
    Died 22 Aug 1485  Bosworth Field (in battle) Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Notes 
    • John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk, KG, Earl Marshal (c.1425 ? 22 August 1485) was an English nobleman and soldier, and the first Howard Duke of Norfolk. He was a close friend and loyal supporter of King Richard III, with whom he was slain at the Battle of Bosworth.

      FAMILY
      John Howard, born about 1425, was the son of Sir Robert Howard of Tendring (1398?1436) and Margaret de Mowbray (1391?1459), eldest daughter of Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk (of the first creation) (1366?1399), by Elizabeth FitzAlan (1366?1425). His paternal grandparents were Sir John Howard of Wiggenhall, Norfolk, and Alice Tendring, daughter of Sir William Tendring.[1][2] Howard was a descendant of English royalty through both sides of his family. On his father's side, Howard was descended from Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall, the second son of King John, who had an illegitimate son, named Richard (d.1296), whose daughter, Joan of Cornwall, married Sir John Howard (d. shortly before 23 July 1331).[3] On his mother's side, Howard was descended from Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk, the elder son of Edward I of England by his second wife, Margaret of France, and from Edward I's younger brother, Edmund Crouchback.

      MARRIAGES and ISSUE
      Before 29 September 1442 Howard married Katherine Moleyns (d. 3 November 1465), the daughter of Sir William Moleyns (7 January 1378 ? 8 June 1425), styled Lord Moleyns, of Stoke Poges, Buckinghamshire, and his wife, Margery Whalesborough (d. 26 March 1439).[9] There is confusion in some sources between the wives of Sir William Moleyns (d. 8 June 1425) and his eldest son and heir, Sir William Moleyns, who was slain at the siege of Orleans on 8 May 1429, and who married, on 1 May 1423, as his second wife, Anne Whalesborough (died c. 1487), the daughter and co-heir of John Whalesborough, esquire, of Whalesborough, Cornwall.[10][11][2]

      By Katherine Moleyns Howard had two sons and four daughters:[12][2]

      Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk, Earl of Surrey (1443?21 May 1524), who married firstly, on 30 April 1472, as her second husband, Elizabeth Tilney, by whom he had ten children including Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, and Elizabeth Howard, wife of Sir Thomas Boleyn, 1st Earl of Wiltshire; he married secondly, in 1497, Agnes Tilney, by whom he had eleven children.
      Nicholas Howard (died c.1468).
      Isabel or Elizabeth Howard, who married Robert Mortimer (d.1485), esquire,[13] of Landmere in Thorpe-le-Soken, slain at Bosworth, by whom she had a daughter, Elizabeth, who married George Guildford, younger son of Sir Richard Guildford.[14][2][15]
      Anne Howard, who married Sir Edmund Gorges (d.1512) of Wraxall, by whom she had issue including Sir Thomas Gorges.
      Jane Howard (d. 1508), who in 1481 married Sir John Timperley of Hintlesham, Suffolk.
      Margaret Howard, who married Sir John Wyndham of Crownthorpe and Felbrigg, Norfolk, by whom she had issue.

      Howard married secondly, before 22 January 1467, Margaret (1436?1494), the daughter of Sir John Chedworth and his wife, Margaret Bowett,[16] and widow, firstly of Nicholas Wyfold (1420-1456), Lord Mayor of London, and secondly of Sir John Norreys (1400 ? 1 September 1466), Master of the Wardrobe.[17]

      By his second wife, Margaret Chedworth, he had one daughter:[17][2]

      Katherine Howard (died 17 March 1536), who married John Bourchier, 2nd Baron Berners, by whom she had issue.

      DEATH
      John Howard was slain at the Battle of Bosworth Field on 22 August 1485 along with his friend and patron King Richard.[18] Howard was the commander of the vanguard, and his son, the Earl of Surrey, his lieutenant. Howard was killed when a Lancastrian arrow struck him in the face after the face guard had been torn off his helmet during an earlier altercation with the Earl of Oxford.[19] He was slain prior to King Richard, which had a demoralising effect on the king. Shakespeare relates how, the night before, someone had left John Howard a note attached to his tent warning him that King Richard III, his "master," was going to be double-crossed (which he was):

      "Jack of Norfolk, be not too bold, For Dickon, thy master, is bought and sold."[20]

      However, this story does not appear prior to Edward Hall in 1548, so the story may well be an apocryphal embellishment of a later era.[21] He was buried in Thetford Priory, but his body seems to have been moved at the Reformation, possibly to the tomb of the 3rd Duke of Norfolk at Framlingham Church. The monumental brass of his first wife Katherine Moleyns can, however, still be seen in Suffolk.

      Howard was the great-grandfather of Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard, the second and fifth Queens consort, respectively, of King Henry VIII. Thus, through Anne Boleyn, he was the great-great-grandfather of Elizabeth I. His titles were declared forfeit after his death by King Henry VII, but his son, the 1st Earl of Surrey, was later restored as 2nd Duke (the Barony of Howard, however, remains forfeit). His senior descendants, the Dukes of Norfolk, have been Earls Marshal and Premier Peers of England since the 17th century, and male-line descendants hold the Earldoms of Carlisle, Suffolk, Berkshire and Effingham.

    • Howard succeeded his father in 1436. In his youth he was in the household of John Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk (d. 1461), and was drawn into Norfolk's conflicts with William de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk. In 1453 he was involved in a lawsuit with Suffolk's wife, Alice Chaucer. He had been elected to Parliament in 1449 and during the 1450s he held several local offices. According to Crawford, he was at one point during this period described as ?wode as a wilde bullok?. He is said to have been with Lord Lisle in his expedition to Guyenne in 1452, which ended in defeat at Castillon on 17 July 1453.[4][2] He received an official commission from the King on 10 December 1455 and also had been utilised by Henry to promote friendship between Lord Moleyns (his father-in-law) and one John Clopton.[5]

      He was a staunch adherent of the House of York during the Wars of the Roses, and was knighted by King Edward IV at the Battle of Towton on 29 March 1461,[6] and in the same year was appointed Constable of Norwich and Colchester castles, and became part of the royal household as one of the King's carvers, 'the start of a service to the house of York which was to last for the rest of his life'.[4][2]

      In 1461 Howard was High Sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk, and during the years 1462-4 he took part in military campaigns against the Lancastrians. In 1467 he served as deputy for Norfolk as Earl Marshal at 'the most splendid tournament of the age when Antoine, count of La Roche, the Bastard of Burgundy, jousted against the Queen's brother, Lord Scales. In the same year he was one of three ambassadors sent to Burgundy to arrange the marriage of the King's sister, Margaret of York, to Charles, Duke of Burgundy. At about this time he was made a member of the King's council, and in 1468 he was among those who escorted Margaret to Burgundy for her wedding.[4][2] During the 1460s Howard had become involved in the internal politics of St John's Abbey in Colchester, of which he was a patron.[7] He interfered with the abbatial elections at the Abbey following the death of Abbot Ardeley in 1464, helping the Yorkist supporter John Canon to win the election.[7] Howard then appears to have interfered again in support of Abbot Stansted's election following Canon's death in 1464.[7]

      Howard's advancement in the King's household continued. By 1467 he was a knight of the body, and in September 1468 was appointed Treasurer of the Royal Household, an office which he held for only two years, until Edward lost the throne in 1470.[4]

      According to Crawford, Howard was a wealthy man by 1470, when Edward IV's first reign ended and he went into exile on the continent. In the area around Stoke by Nayland Howard held some sixteen manors, seven of which the King had granted him in 1462. After 1463 he purchased a number of others manors, including six forfeited by John de Vere, 12th Earl of Oxford, the son of his cousin, Elizabeth Howard.[2]

      Howard was summoned to Parliament from 15 October 1470 by writs directed to Iohanni Howard de Howard Militi and Iohanni Howard Chivaler, whereby he is held to have become Lord Howard. On 24 April 1472 he was admitted to the Order of the Garter.[4][2][1]

      In April 1483 he bore the royal banner at the funeral of King Edward IV,[4] and was appointed Lord High Steward, and bore the crown before Richard III at his coronation. His eldest son, the Earl of Surrey, carried the Sword of State.

      For his support of Richard III during the deposition of King Edward V, he was created Duke of Norfolk, third creation, on 28 June 1483, the first creation of the dukedom of Norfolk having become extinct on the death of John de Mowbray, 4th Duke of Norfolk, in 1476, and the second creation having been invalidated by the illegitimization, on 25 June 1483, of Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York, one of the Princes in the Tower, who was also 1st Duke of Norfolk. Norfolk was also created Earl Marshal, and Lord Admiral of all England, Ireland, and Aquitaine.

      The Duke's principal home was at Stoke-by-Nayland (and later Framlingham Castle) in Suffolk.[8] However, after his second marriage he frequently resided at Ockwells Manor at Cox Green in Bray as it was conveniently close to the royal residence at Windsor Castle.[8]

    • John HOWARD, 1st Duke of Norfolk

      Born around 1420, John Howard was the son and heir of Sir Robert Howard and Margaret, daughter of Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk. Through his mother and her female line, he was descended from Edward I, thus making him the premier Duke and heir to the title of Earl Marshall. Nothing is known of his childhood.

      His first recorded service was in 1451, when he followed Lord L?Isle to Guienne. He was also present at the Battle of Chatillon in Jul two years later. It was at this time that he entered the service of John Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk.

      On the first accession of Edward IV, Howard was knighted and appointed Constable of Colchester Castle, Sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk. He was also one of the King?s Carvers.

      Howard took an active part in John Mowbray?s quarrel with John Paston. In Aug 1461, he was involved in a violent brawl with Paston and used his influence with Edward IV against Paston. In Nov of the same year, Howard was imprisoned after giving offence at the election of Paston, causing many complaints against him.

      The following year, he was appointed Constable of Norwich Castle and received grants of several manors forfeited by the Earl of Wiltshire. He was joined by William Neville, Baron Fauconberg and Lord Clinton to "keep the seas", taking Croquet and the Isle of Rhe. Later in the year, he was sent to help the Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick at Warkworth.

      In the Spring of 1464, Howard helped Norfolk secure Wales for Edward IV. He bought the reversion of Bamburgh Castle in Jun of the same year and was with Edward IV and his court at Reading by the year?s end.

      Howard was appointed Vice Admiral for Norfolk and Suffolk in 1466, and was charged with conveying envoys from England to France and the Duke of Burgundy. He remained in Calais from 15 May to 27 Sep.

      He was elected Knight of the Shire for Suffolk in Apr 1467, having been elected Knight of the Shire for Norfolk in 1455. Nov 1467 saw him as an appointed Envoy to France as well as Treasurer to the Household, a post which he held until 1474. The following Jun (1468) he attended Margaret of York to Flanders for her marriage to Charles, Duke of Burgundy.

      On the restoration of Henry VI, he was created Baron de Howard (15 Oct 1470). However, when Edward IV landed back in England in Mar 1471, after living in exile in Bruges, Howard proclaimed Edward to be King.

      The following Jun, he was appointed Deputy Governor of Calais. When Edward IV invaded France in Jul 1474, he was accompanied by John Howard, who was one of the commissioners who made a truce at Amiens. Howard received a pension from Louis XI and remained in France, briefly, as a hostage after Edward?s departure. On Howard?s return to England, he was granted manors in Suffolk and Oxfordshire forfeited by John de Vere, Earl of Oxford.

      John Howard was also sent by Edward to treat with France on several occasions ? Jul 1477, Mar 1478, and Jan 1479. Also, in 1479, he was put in charge of the fleet which was sent to Scotland.

      At Edward IV?s funeral in Apr 1483, he carried Edward?s Banner. He then attached himself to Richard III. On 13 May 1483, he was appointed High Steward of the Duchy of Lancaster and wa made a Privy Councillor. A month later, John Howard was created Duke of Norfolk and Earl Marshall.

      He persuaded Elizabeth Woodville to let the young Duke of York join his brother Edward V in the Tower. He was possibly involved in the murder of the two princes in the Tower of London. At Richard III?s coronation, Howard performed many functions ? he acted as High Steward, bore the crown, and, as Earl Marshall, was the King?s Champion. Shortly afterwards, he was created Admiral of England, Ireland, and Aquitaine, and was appointed Chief of Commissioners to negotiate with James III of Scotland on 12 Sep 1484 at Nottingham.

    • John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk, 12th Baron Segrave, 11th Baron Mowbray, Earl Marshal (1421 ? 22 August 1485) was an English nobleman, soldier, and the first Howard duke of Norfolk. He was a close friend and loyal supporter of King Richard III of England, with whom he died in combat at the Battle of Bosworth.

      The Battle of Bosworth Field was the penultimate battle of the Wars of the Roses, the civil war between the House of Lancaster and the House of York that raged across England in the latter half of the 15th century. Fought on 22 August 1485, the battle was won by the Lancastrians. Their leader Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, became the first English monarch of the Tudor dynasty by his victory and subsequent marriage to a Yorkist princess. His opponent Richard III, the last king of the House of York, was killed in the battle. Historians consider Bosworth Field to mark the end of the Plantagenet dynasty, making it one of the defining moments of English history

      Born around 1420, John Howard was the son and heir of Sir Robert Howard andMargaret, daughter of Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk. Through his mother and her female line, he was descended from Edward I, thus making him the premier Duke and heir to the title of Earl Marshall. Nothing is known of his childhood.

      His first recorded service was in 1451, when he followed Lord L?Isle to Guienne. He was also present at the Battle of Chatillon in Jul two years later. It was at this time that he entered the service of John Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk.

      On the first accession of Edward IV, Howard was knighted and appointed Constable of Colchester Castle, Sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk. He was also one of the King?s Carvers.

      Howard took an active part in John Mowbray?s quarrel with John Paston. In Aug 1461, he was involved in a violent brawl with Paston and used his influence withEdward IV against Paston. In Nov of the same year, Howard was imprisoned after giving offence at the election of Paston, causing many complaints against him.

      The following year, he was appointed Constable of Norwich Castle and received grants of several manors forfeited by the Earl of Wiltshire. He was joined byWilliam Neville, Baron Fauconberg and Lord Clinton to ?keep the seas?, taking Croquet and the Isle of Rhe. Later in the year, he was sent to help the Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick at Warkworth.

      In the Spring of 1464, Howard helped Norfolk secure Wales for Edward IV. He bought the reversion of Bamburgh Castle in Jun of the same year and was withEdward IV and his court at Reading by the year?s end.

      Howard was appointed Vice Admiral for Norfolk and Suffolk in 1466, and was charged with conveying envoys from England to France and the Duke of Burgundy. He remained in Calais from 15 May to 27 Sep.

      He was elected Knight of the Shire for Suffolk in Apr 1467, having been elected Knight of the Shire for Norfolk in 1455. Nov 1467 saw him as an appointed Envoy to France as well as Treasurer to the Household, a post which he held until 1474. The following Jun (1468) he attended Margaret of York to Flanders for her marriage to Charles, Duke of Burgundy.

      On the restoration of Henry VI, he was created Baron de Howard (15 Oct 1470). However, when Edward IV landed back in England in Mar 1471, after living in exile in Bruges, Howard proclaimed Edward to be King.

      The following Jun, he was appointed Deputy Governor of Calais. When Edward IVinvaded France in Jul 1474, he was accompanied by John Howard, who was one of the commissioners who made a truce at Amiens. Howard received a pension from Louis XI and remained in France, briefly, as a hostage after Edward?s departure. On Howard?s return to England, he was granted manors in Suffolk and Oxfordshire forfeited by John de Vere, Earl of Oxford.

      John Howard was also sent by Edward to treat with France on several occasions ? Jul 1477, Mar 1478, and Jan 1479. Also, in 1479, he was put in charge of the fleet which was sent to Scotland.

      At Edward IV?s funeral in Apr 1483, he carried Edward?s Banner. He then attached himself to Richard III. On 13 May 1483, he was appointed High Steward of the Duchy of Lancaster and was made a Privy Councillor. A month later, John Howard was created Duke of Norfolk and Earl Marshall.

      He persuaded Elizabeth Woodville to let the young Duke of York join his brother Edward V in the Tower. He was possibly involved in the murder of the two princes in the Tower of London. At Richard III?s coronation, Howard performed many functions ? he acted as High Steward, bore the crown, and, as Earl Marshall, was the King?s Champion. Shortly afterwards, he was created Admiral of England, Ireland, and Aquitaine, and was appointed Chief of Commissioners to negotiate with James III of Scotland on 12 Sep 1484 at Nottingham.

      In Aug 1485, he summoned his retainers to Bury St. Edmunds and commanded the vanguard at the Battle of Bosworth, where he was killed. Howard was attainted at Henry VII?s first Parliament. Warned in the following distich: ?Jockey of Norfolk be not too bold,/ For Dickon thy master is bought and sold?. He was buried in the conventual church at Thetford, Norfolk.
    Person ID I672075230  Johnson & Hanson
    Last Modified 7 Dec 2015 

    Father Sir Robert HOWARD, of Stoke Neyland,   b. 1384,   d. 1437  (Age 53 years) 
    Mother Margaret DE MOWBRAY, Duchess of Norfolk,   b. 1387,   d. 8 Jul 1425  (Age 38 years) 
    Family ID F565995740  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 1 Katherine DE MOLEYNS,   d. 3 Nov 1465, Stoke Neyland Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Children 
    +1. Thomas HOWARD, 2nd Duke of Norfolk, Knight of the Garter & Bath,   b. 1443, Stoke Newland, Suffolk, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 21 May 1524, Farlingham Castle, Farlingham, Suffolk, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 81 years)
     2. Nicholas HOWARD
     3. Anne HOWARD,   b. 1446, Tendring, Essex, England Find all individuals with events at this location
    +4. Isabel HOWARD,   b. 1448, Tendring, Essex, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1485  (Age 37 years)
     5. Jane HOWARD,   b. 1450, Essex, Norfolk, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 15 Aug 1508  (Age 58 years)
     6. Margaret HOWARD,   b. 1450,   d. 1508  (Age 58 years)
    Last Modified 6 Dec 2015 
    Family ID F565995671  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 2 Margaret CHEDWORTH,   b. 1436,   d. 1494  (Age 58 years) 
    Children 
     1. Katherine HOWARD,   d. 17 Mar 1536
    Last Modified 3 May 2015 
    Family ID F565995758  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Photos
    John Howard, 1st Howard Duke of Norfolk
    John Howard, 1st Howard Duke of Norfolk
    John Howard (1425 - 22 Aug 1485)
    Battle of Bosworth Field as depicted by Philip James de Loutherbourg (17401812)
    Battle of Bosworth Field as depicted by Philip James de Loutherbourg (17401812)
    The Battle of Bosworth Field was the penultimate battle of the Wars of the Roses, the civil war between the House of Lancaster and the House of York that raged across England in the latter half of the 15th century. Fought on 22 August 1485, the battle was won by the Lancastrians. Their leader Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, became the first English monarch of the Tudor dynasty by his victory and subsequent marriage to a Yorkist princess. His opponent Richard III, the last king of the House of York, was killed in the battle. Historians consider Bosworth Field to mark the end of the Plantagenet dynasty, making it one of the defining moments of English history


  

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