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401 Baldwin III The Young of Flanders (940 - January 1, 962) was Count of Flanders, who briefly ruled the County of Flanders (an area that is now northwestern Belgium and southwestern Holland), together with his father Arnulf I.

Baldwin III was born c. 940, The son of Arnulf I, Count of Flanders and his second wife, Adele of Vermandois, daughter of Herbert II, Count of Vermandois. His father, Arnulf I had made Baldwin co-ruler in 958, but Baldwin died before his father and was succeeded by his infant son Arnulf II, with his father acting as regent until his own death.

During his short rule, Baldwin was responsible for establishing the wool manufacturing industry at Ghent and markets at other towns in Flanders.[2] Baldwin III died on 1 January 962. After Baldwin's death, Arnulf I arranged for King Lothair of France to become the guardian of Baldwin's son Arnulf II.

In 961 Baldwin had married Mathilde Billung of Saxony, daughter of Herman, Duke of Saxony[4], by whom he had a son, his heir, Arnulf II, Count of Flanders. 
DE FLANDRES, Comte Baudouin (Baldwin) III (I671953263)
 
402 Baldwin was a Fleming from Boelare, Flanders and was son of Stephen, Baron of Boelare. He came to England in 1105 when he was granted the Lordship of Montgomery by Henry I King of England in marriage with Sybil de Falaise. Sybil was the illegitimate daughter of Henry.

The language of Flanders was Dutch so he would have been Baldwin van Boelare (Baldwin of Boelare). The Normans however spoke French so to them he was Baldwin de Boulers. He is recorded as several other phonetic variations on this such as Baldwin de Boullers, de Bollers or de Bullers.

Baldwins' son Stephen (slain by Llywelyn ap Madog of Powys in 1152) and grandsons Robert and Baldwin succeeded him. The family lost the Lordship after they were overrun by the Welsh in 1207. The lordship was eventually sold by Stephen de Stanton, a son of Sybil, daughter of the first Baldwin, to Thomas de Erdington, of Erdington (Warwickshire) in 1214-15. The sale was confirmed by King John who, however, handed the lordship to Gwenwynwyn, Prince of Powys, in 1216; but he was almost immediately driven out by Llywelyn ap Iorwerth (Llywelyn the Great), Prince of Gwynedd.

It is believed that all modern Bowdlers come from Robert de Bollers (c1140-1203). His descendants settled on the English side of the border in Shropshire, where they remained for many generations. 
DE BOULERS, Baldwin Lord Montgomery (I12884)
 
403 Barbara Shore Notes:
My earliest known JORDAN is Absalom, b. c 1792; d. Sep 1859 of Bibb Co., GA. He was married to Julia ROBERTS, daughter of Reuben ROBERTs and Margaret HUDSON of Jones Co., GA. Their ch:

Nancy b. 1813 md. 10 Jan 1837 Bibb Co., GA to Burwell PARKER
Wiley, b. 1821; md. Sarah Ann B. ?; died Aug 1860 k.c.w.
Francis, b. 1826; md. (1) 1 Jan 1850 Bibb Co. GA to Asa McKINNEY; md. (2) 24 Oct 1857 Bibb Co., GA to Michael NAVAL
Lucy Ann, b. 1828 ;. c1862; md. 8 Jun 1844 Bibb Co. GA to James Richard JONES
James J. JORDAN b. 1834; d. Nov 1862 k.c.s. md. a Miss WISE
Elizabeth, b. 1836 md. (1) 16 Jan 1842 Bibb Co., GA to Warren SUMMERLINE; md. (2) 9 May 1848 Bibb Co., GA to George RAYMON
Mary Jane, b. 1838; md. 18 Jan 1855, Bibb Co., GA to Thomas RABAND
Caroline, b. 1841 md. John J. ROBERTS (a cousin)

There were two other Absalom JORDANs in GA, one in Wilkes Co. and one in Wilkinson Co. I have not been able to make a connection with either of these two.  
JORDAN, Absalom (I35)
 
404 Barony of Dunster of Norman Origon given by William the Conqueror to William de Mohun. Reginald St. Leger paid a feoffe of 1?Knights Service to the Barony as stated by the "Honour of Dunster" The Barony owned estates in Somerset, Dorset, Wilts and Devon. He was Lord of Totbeare in Dorset. DE ST LEGER, Reginald (I672075302)
 
405 Became a wine merchant in London CHERRY, Thomas (I40987)
 
406 Became Governor of Arkansas BAXTER, Elisha (I672075204)
 
407 Became Governor of Tennessee BAXTER, William (I672075203)
 
408 Before 1800 in South Carolina Family F1228
 
409 Believe Uncle Si was married 3 or 4 times, when he passed away he wasliving with Estelle unknown.
No information is known about children 
FRY, Silas (Si) F. (I113)
 
410 Believed to have died due to a fall From a moving wagon around 7

years of age.

Probably the first Faver buried in the Faver Family Cemetery. 
FAVER, Sanders Walker JR. (I7681)
 
411 Benedictine Monk. 14th Abbot of the Abbey of Bec-Hellouin in the Bishopric of Evreux France. "A personage of High Birth and very educated in his ways". Blessed by Theobald Archbishop of Rouen before his appointment in 1223.He was involved in the building aqueducts for bringing water to different parts of the Abbey. DE ST LEGER, Henri Abbot of Bec-Hellouin (I672075331)
 
412 Benjamin and Hudson Jennings removed to Danby, (then Tioga Co.), Tompkins Co., NY about 1801, with parents, Lemuel and Abiah Jennings coming later.  JENNINGS, Benjamin (I5897)
 
413 Benjamin JENNINGS came in 1802 and located in Beers Settlement. Oscar JENNINGS was his son, and the late Benjamin JENNINGS [m. Lydia Maria BEERS, dau. of Andrew BEERS and Ruth DURFEY] his grandson. He was from Cornwall, Conn., and settled on the farm now occupied by the family of William BUCKLAND. Benjamin JENNINGS was a member of assembly in 1827 and 1837, and a prominent and useful citizen, Landmarks. Born May 7, 1774, in Cornwall, Litchfield Co., CT to Lemuel JENNINGS and Abiah BIERCE (Starr, History of Cornwall, Connecticut, 1926). He d. July 2, 1856 in Danby (Jacob WILLSEY Journal). No headstone found.  BIERCE, Abiah (I40679)
 
414 Benjamin Lewis, Lydia Belden's second husband died in Colchester, Ct. inhis seventy-ninth year. LEWIS, Benjamin (I6960)
 
415 Benjamin married Elizabeth A. Halley, his first cousin, daughter ofRicahrd Simpson Halley and Mary (Nancy) Smith. HOLLEY, Benjamin S. (I10585)
 
416 BENJAMIN MATTHEWS apparently migrated to Edgecombe County, NC with his brothers JOSEPH and WILLIAM.

He bought 200 acres on the North side of Swift Creek in Edgecombe County, NC on Aug. 19, 1746 [Edgecombe Co., NC Deed Book 3, p. 7].

He died intestate prior to September Court, 1762, when his daughter PHEBE MATTHEWS was granted administration of his estate.

His estate was sold Oct. 9, 1762, and account of sale was returned to court in January Court, 1763 [Watson, "Estate Records of Edgecombe Co., NC," Durham, NC: Seeman Printery, Inc., 1970, p. 176].  
MATTHEWS, Benjamin (I41322)
 
417 Benjamin Rush Sr. and Benjamin Rush Jr.
A careful review of the court records for Westmoreland, King George, Prince William, Spotsylvania, Orange, Caroline and Richmond Counties (image) demonstrates that Benjamin Rush Sr. never lived on his 387 acres in Spotsylvania County. The earliest record for Benjamin Rush Sr. is on 3 April 1717 in Richmond County when he and Joseph Alssup made a Performance Bond for Amee (Amy) Elkins, recent widow of James Elkins, assuring that she as Administrix would prepare a "true and perfect Inventory" of her late husband?s estate. [67] By 1722 they were married and living on 150 acres of her former husband?s land. Richard Elkins, a brother of James Elkins, was living on the remaining 100 acres. After King George County was formed in 1720, this land fell into Brunswick Parish then Hanover Parish of King George. In May 1723 Benjamin Rush was appointed a Constable for King George [73] and in July 1727 he was appointed Deputy Sheriff. [74] In that capacity he did appear at the Spotsylvania County court on two occasions: 2 September 1729 when he "made return of Richard Bryants & c." [75] and 2 March 1730/31 when he " returned John Grave {? Grame}, Gent." [76] In early May 1734, Benjamin Rush Sr. "of King George County" sold his 387 acres in Spotsylvania County to Joseph Strothers. [77, 78] Ironically, on the same day at Spotsylvania court his older brother, William Rush IV, was appointed a Constable in place of Michael Holt. [79] The remaining Spotsylvania Court entries for a "Benjamin Rush" appear to be William Rush IV?s second son and Mary Mylam's brother, Benjamin.
Amy and James Elkins previously had at least one son, Joseph, who was a minor and who at age 16 chose Benjamin Rush Sr. to be his guardian. [80] Joseph as the eldest son would at majority inherit his father's entire 250 acres. Benjamin Rush?s sale of his Spotsylvania property and removal to Prince William County may have been prompted by this Joseph's decision to sell the land that Amy and Benjamin Rush Sr. lived on in King George County to James Jones, a bricklayer, in August 1732. [81] However, Amy Elkins Rush did not give up her right of Dower in this property until 5 July 1734 - shortly after Benjamin?s Spotsylvania land sale. [82] In September 1735, Benjamin Rush Sr. purchased through Lease and Release 112 acres in Prince William County which extended to the "Occoquan River...{and}...upon Marompsco {Marumsco} Creek". [83, 84] Benjamin Sr. did not become either a Constable or Deputy Sheriff in Prince William County and his court appearances significantly decreased. Almost twenty years later, in May 1753, a license was granted him "to keep an Ordinary {tavern} at his home". [85]
Four years earlier in June of 1749, Benjamin Sr. had purchased 640 acres of land in Granville County, later Bute County, Colony of North Carolina. [86] He died there in December 1766 and his Prince William County Will was approved at Bute County court in January 1767. [87, 88] It is not clear from Virginia records when exactly he relocated to North Carolina. My best guess for the time frame of his move is from the date of the last Prince William County court record identifying Benjamin Rush "Senior" on 5 May 1762 [89] until 7 March 1763 when his son, Benjamin Jr., was granted a license to keep an Ordinary. [90] I chose the latter date because Benjamin Jr. completed the sale of all of his land in Prince William County in December 1762 perhaps in preparation to take over his father?s Ordinary after Benjamin Sr. relocated to North Carolina. [91] After this time, Prince William County court records no longer add the suffix "Senior" or "Junior" following their name suggesting that there was only one Benjamin Rush in the county, Benjamin Rush Jr.
Benjamin Rush Sr.?s estate inventory submitted in Bute County by his son and excutor, Benjamin Rush Jr., in August 1768 was significantly larger than his father?s, William Rush III, and was impressive wealth for the time. Owning an Ordinary must have been quite profitable. In part, the inventory included:
"To cash in house 20 £ of Virginia Currency.....63 hogs....18 cattle...8 sheep...2 hogshead of tobacco... 4 ploughs...4 axes...a crop of corn, fodder, pease, beans and potatoes...3 feather beds and furniture...14 tables...11 plates...4 pewter dishes...8 tin pans...5 wooden plates...14 pewter spoons...4 butcher knives...5 table knives and 7 forks...4 butcher knives....1 ladle and flesh fork...1 frying pan...6 pair of sizzors...{many assorted dishes and flatware}...1 earthen cream pot...1 pewter chamber pot...a small spit to roast fowl...a small pocket pistol...1 gun...1 man?s saddle...1 woman?s saddle...2 bridles...1 off riding chair and harness...2 tables and chests...1 small trunk....1 safe.... 2 Bibles...{many farming utinsils}...{carpenter tools}...4 shoemakers awls....marking irons...1 pair sheep shears...6 padlocks...8 fish hooks...1 trowel...1 cooper?s axe...1 joyner...1 pair spectacles...1 smith?s bellows...3 pairs of tongs...3 hammers...1 wool wheel... one tobacco box...3 small snuff boxes...2 copper compasses...one ink pot...etc. {oddly, no horses are mentioned} Recorded. Teste: Ben McCulloch, Clerk of Court [92]
The 14 tables and 14 pewter spoons probably indicates that he again had an Ordinary (tavern) in North Carolina and makes the point that most people ate with spoons since food typically was prepared in large pots over an open fire in a fireplace i.e. porridges, soups, stews, etc. Frying and grilling of meat was reserved - as today - for better, more tender cuts of meat which most persons couldn?t afford. In fact, eating with a fork didn?t become fashionable in the courts of Europe until the 1760s and later for common folks. The Rush family did own one frying pan perhaps used occasionally when cooking for themselves. The collection of tools for carpentry, shoemaking, cooper?s axe and blacksmith?s bellows indicates the trades that Benjamin Sr. and his sons could perform. In fact, a May 1761 Dellingen Parish church Indenture in Prince William County records the following: "Benjamin Thomas, Orphan of William Thomas, deceased, age 11 bound until age 21 to Benjamin Rush. To be taught the art, mystery and occupation of cooper, and to read and write." [93] I also found a July 1755 Dellingen Parish Indenture for Benjamin Jr. for teaching an orphan blacksmithing: "William Fewell, an Orphan boy, age 10 on March 18 next; bound until age 21 to Benjamin Rush, Jr., Blacksmith. To be taught the trade, art or mystery of blacksmith and to read and write English." [94] These Parish records also demonstrate that they were members of the Church of England?s Dettingen Parish, Prince William County.

Children of Benjamin Rush Sr.

? Benjamin Rush Jr. (3 Feb 1717 - 23 May 1801) ---married Alice Grigsby
? Catherine (3 Jul 1719 - after 1750) ---
? Amie (1 Feb 1721 - after 1750) ---married ___ Grigsby
? Elizabeth (13 Sep 1723 - after 1750) ---married Joshua Perry
? Jane (5 Feb 1725 - after 1750) ---married George Bledsoe
My Chronology of Court Records for Benjamin Rush (link) has 110 records for him and his son, Benjamin Jr., dating from April 1717 until Benjamin Sr.'s Bute County, North Carolina, estate inventory of August 1768.
 
RUSH, Benjamin Sr (I11104)
 
418 Berengar II of Rennes(died 896) was the Count of Bayeux and Rennes and Margrave of the Breton March from 886 until his death a decade later.

In 874, Brittany's internal politics were thrown into turmoil when King Salomon was murdered by a rival. The resulting surge of Viking attacks made possible by the power vacuum was narrowly held at bay by a hasty Breton-Frankish alliance between Alan the Great of Vannes and Berengar of Rennes. Between 889-90, the Seine Vikings moved into Brittany, hard on the heels of the Loire fleet that Alan and Berengar had successfully driven out (this latter force had broken up into several small flotillas and sailed west). Alain again joined forces with Berengar of Rennes and led two Breton armies into the field. Finding their retreat down the Marne blocked, the Vikings hauled their ships overland to the Vire and besieged Saint-Lo, where the Bretons virtually annihilated the fleet.

Roland and his successors under Guy of Nantes were aristocrats from Maine.

Berengar's kin became the first bilingual Breton and Gallo speaking lords holding residence within Brittany (Rennes and Penthièvre, rather than the Loire Valley-predominant Nantes or Vannes, which nevertheless had at least one Franco-Saxon conflict in Angers), as a consequence of the Breton nobility being more or less broken under the Norman invasions of the 880s and as a reward for holding his ground against their attacks.

Berengar was named for Berengar I of Neustria, but was most likely the son of Henry of Franconia, himself a member of the Senior Capets through the Babenberg lineage. He is likely to have been Henry's son because (1) Berengar named his daughter the feminine form of Poppo, a name common among the Babenbergs, and (2) the main Capetian branch had traditionally held the Breton March. Of course, this is all theoretical and the lineage of Berengar might very well have been Saxon, considering the known presence of a raiding colony of that people in the Bessin and the fact that the Frankish element of this region was never strong, despite involved forenames. Compare Wessex across the English Channel and their ethnic mixture with Cornwall, as well as the pre-Norman Conquest presence of Bretons in England, such as Alan II, Duke of Brittany or Ralph the Staller. These theories are alternatives to the traditionally Breton genealogical origin, because the area was once known as "New Brittany" in the Latin language: Brittania Nova, in Merovingian Francia. It may be said that this lineage was due to Berengar perhaps being descended from Breton expansionists in pre-Capetian West Francia and before the establishment of Normandy as a polity dependent upon the County of Rouen, which annexed Bayeux. All three ideas of origin are as intimately related to later conditions during the Hundred Years' War, as they are to the previous status of Britannia as a Roman Diocese within the Prefecture of Gaul and the general interrelatedness of the people and their bicoastal cultural character.

Berengar married the daughter of Gurvand, Duke of Brittany, by which relationship he attained the countship of Rennes. His brother-in-law, Judicael became Duke of Brittany. Berengar's son was Judicael Berengar, who succeeded him as Count of Rennes. His daughter was Poppa, who was strategically wed to Rollo of Normandy.
 
Berengar II of Neustria, Count of Bayeux and Rennes (I40761)
 
419 Bethel Assembly of God Church Cemetery
DEAN, Jeff J. 4 Nov., 1862 4 May, 1946

1870 Federal Census see notes: James Jefferson DEAN (father)
1880 Federal Census see notes: James Jefferson DEAN (father)

--------------Extract of 1900 Census of Dale Co. Al.------------------------
1900 Federal Census Dale Co., Al.
Page: 283b Sup D: 3 Enum D: 69 City: Precinct 12 Barnes Cross Roads Date: 01 June 1900 Enum: Henry R. Jernigan
Dwell: 13 Fam: 13
Name REL DOB AGE M/S Y C/L POB Father Mother OCC
DEAN Jefferson J. Head Nov 1862 37 M 16 ./. AL GA NC Farmer
Georgia Wife Nov 1862 37 M 16 7/6 AL GA NC
Thomas J. Son Oct 1884 15 S . ./. AL AL AL
Homer Son Apr 1888 12 S . ./. AL AL AL
Mary M. Dau May 1890 10 S . ./. AL AL AL
Loula Dau Aug 1892 07 S . ./. AL AL AL
Mattie L. Dau Oct 1894 05 S . ./. AL AL AL
Robert Son Aug 1897 02 S . ./. AL AL AL
-----------------End of Extract of 1900 Census--------------------------- 
DEAN, Jefferson James (I671953704)
 
420 Between 1790 and 1800 probably in SC BAILEY, William C. (I40725)
 
421 BIBB COURT OF ORDINARY
In Chambers, June 9th, 1860

To Elizabeth Newsom, of Bibb County, John Newsom, of Louisianna, James Newsom, of Louisianna, William C. Lawshe, of Fulton County, Ga., Nathaniel G. Foster and his wife, Mary R. Foster, formerly Lawshe, of Sumter County, Ga.,Nathaniel E. Gardner and his wife Martha E. Gardner formerly Lawshe, of Fulton County Ga., Ira Jennings and his wife Elizabeth, formerly Newsom, of Bibb County Ga., Albert B. Ross, as Guardian, ad litem, for Elizabeth R. Newsom, minor, of Mississippi, the said Albert B. being of Bibb County Ga., Robert B. Barfield and his wife Martha M., formerly Newsom of Bibb County Ga., Benjamine F.C. Bonner and his wife Caroline formerly Newsom, of Bibb County Ga., Madison G. Newsom of Bibb County Ga., Albert B. Ross of Bibb County Ga., as Guardian, ad litem, for Laura Newsom, devisees, legatees, and heirs at law of Henry Newsom, late of said county of Bibb, deceased:

You are hereby notified that Robert R. Barfield, Madison G. Newsom and Ira Jennings, as executors of the last will and testament of Henry Newsom, late of said county of Bibb, deceased, have this day filed their petition in the Court of Ordinary of said county of Bibb, and pray that citation may issue to the devisees, legatees, and heirs at law of said Henry Newsom, deceased, you will therefore take notice that a paper purporting to be the last will and testament of said Henry Newsom, deceased, will be propounded for Probate, in solemn form, on the first Monday in October next, in terms of the statute, in such cases made and provided.

Given under my hand and official signature, this June 9th, 1860.

WM. M. RILEY, Ordinary.
 
NEWSOM, Henry (I1233)
 
422 Bill and Margaret had no children FRY, William (Bill) Kenneth (I112)
 
423 Biographical Sketch HARRY S. TRUMAN 33rd President of the United States

Harry S. Truman was born in Lamar, Missouri on May 8, 1884, the son of John Anderson Truman and Martha Ellen (Young) Truman. The family, which soon included another boy, Vivian, and a girl, Mary Jane moved several times during Truman's childhood and youth - first, in 1887, to a farm near Grandview, then, in 1890, to Independence, and finally, in 1902, to Kansas City. Young Harry attended public schools in Independence, graduating from high school in 1901. After leaving school, he worked briefly as a timekeeper for a railroad construction contractor, then as a clerk in two Kansas City banks. In 1906 he returned to Grandview to help his father run the family farm. He continued working as a farmer for more than ten years.
From 1905 to 1911, Truman served in the Missouri National Guard. When the United States entered World War I in 1917, he helped organize the 2nd Regiment of Missouri Field Artillery, which was quickly called into Federal service as the 129th Field Artillery and sent to France. Truman was promoted to Captain and given command of the regiment's Battery D. He and his unit saw action in the Vosges, Saint Mihiel and Meuse-Argonne campaigns. Truman joined the reserves after the war, rising eventually to the rank of colonel. He sought to return to active duty at the outbreak of World War II, but Army Chief of Staff General George C. Marshall declined his offer to serve.
On June 28, 1919, Truman married Bess Wallace, whom he had known since childhood. Their only child, Mary Margaret, was born on February 17, 1924. From 1919 to 1922 he ran a men's clothing store in Kansas City with his wartime friend, Eddie Jacobson. The store failed in the postwar recession. Truman narrowly avoided bankruptcy, and through determination and over many years he paid off his share of the store's debts.
Truman was elected in 1922, to be one of three judges of the Jackson County Court. Judge Truman whose duties were in fact administrative rather than judicial, built a reputation for honesty and efficiency in the management of county affairs. He was defeated for reelection in 1924, but won election as presiding judge in the Jackson County Court in 1926. He won reelection in 1930.
In 1934, Truman was elected to the United States Senate. He had significant roles in the passage into law of the Civil Aeronautics Act of 1938 and the Transportation Act of 1940. After being reelected in 1940, Truman gained national prominence as chairman of the Senate Special Committee to Investigate the National Defense Program. This committee, which came to be called the Truman Committee, sought with considerable success to ensure that defense contractors delivered to the nation quality goods at fair prices.
In July 1944, Truman was nominated to run for Vice President with President Franklin D. Roosevelt. On January 20, 1945, he took the vice-presidential oath, and after President Roosevelt's unexpected death only eighty-two days later on April 12, 1945, he was sworn in as the nations' thirty-third President.
Truman later called his first year as President a "year of decisions." He oversaw during his first two months in office the ending of the war in Europe. He participated in a conference at Potsdam, Germany, governing defeated Germany, and to lay some groundwork for the final stage of the war against Japan. Truman approved the dropping of two bombs on Japan on August 6 and 9, 1945. Japan surrendered on August 14, and American forces of occupation began to land by the end of the month. This first year of Truman's presidency also saw the founding of the United Nations and the development of an increasingly strained and confrontational relationship with the Soviet Union.
Truman's presidency was marked throughout by important foreign policy initiatives. Central to almost everything Truman undertook in his foreign policy was the desire to prevent the expansion of the influence of the Soviet Union. The Truman Doctrine was an enunciation of American willingness to provide military aid to countries resisting communist insurgencies; the Marshall Plan sought to revive the economies of the nations of Europe in the hope that communism would not thrive in the midst of prosperity; the North Atlantic Treaty Organization built a military barrier confronting the Soviet-dominated part of Europe. The one time during his presidency when a communist nation invaded a non-communist one -- when North Korea invaded South Korea in June 1950 -- Truman responded by waging undeclared war.
In his domestic policies, Truman sought to accomplish the difficult transition from a war to a peace economy without plunging the nation into recession, and he hoped to extend New Deal social programs to include more government protection and services and to reach more people. He was successful in achieving a healthy peacetime economy, but only a few of his social program proposals became law. The Congress, which was much more Republican in its membership during his presidency than it had been during Franklin Roosevelt's, did not usually share Truman's desire to build on the legacy of the New Deal.
The Truman administration went considerably beyond the New Deal in the area of civil rights. Although, the conservative Congress thwarted Truman's desire to achieve significant civil rights legislation, he was able to use his powers as President to achieve some important changes. He issued executive orders desegregating the armed forces and forbidding racial discrimination in Federal employment. He also established a Committee on Civil Rights and encouraged the Justice Department to argue before the Supreme Court on behalf of plaintiffs fighting against segregation.
In 1948, Truman won reelection. His defeat had been widely expected and often predicted, but Truman's energy in undertaking his campaign and his willingness to confront issues won a plurality of the electorate for him. His famous "Whistlestop" campaign tour through the country has passed into political folklore, as has the photograph of the beaming Truman holding up the newspaper whose headline proclaimed, "Dewey Defeats Truman."
Truman left the presidency and retired to Independence in January 1953. For the nearly two decades of his life remaining to him, he delighted in being "Mr. Citizen," as he called himself in a book of memoirs. He spent his days reading, writing, lecturing and taking long brisk walks. He took particular satisfaction in founding and supporting his Library, which made his papers available to scholars, and which opened its doors to everyone who wished to have a glimpse of his remarkable life and career.
Harry S. Truman died on December 26, 1972. Bess Truman died on October 18, 1982. They are buried side by side in the Library's courtyard. 
TRUMAN, Harry Shipp (I9690)
 
424 BIOGRAPHY
Agnes (sometimes called Anne) was the daughter of William Howard, 1st baron Howard of Effingham and his first wife, Catherine Broughton. Agnes married William Paulet, 3rd Marquess of Winchester, and was the mother of his legitimate children, William, Anne, Catherine, and Elizabeth. The lands retained by the de Boughtons passed by marriage to the Howard family. William Paulet and the Lady Agnes, conveyed the Manors of Broughton and Wolston Parva to Thomas Duncombe Esq. in Jan 1572

Broughtons Manor in Crawley was obtained in fee by the Broughton family, from whom it acquired its distinctive name. In 1351 John son of Robert de Broughton conveyed 60 acres of land, 1 acre of meadow, 2s. rent and ½ lb of pepper to John Bohun of Midhurst and Cecily his wife. Sixty years later John Broughton, grandson of the grantor, claimed this estate against the grantees? son John Bohun, and it was restored to him by order of court in 1427-8. This property, referred to in 1489 as the litell maner in More Craule called Broughtons, descended with lands in Broughton parish likewise retained by the Broughton family to Agnes Howard, wife of William Paulet, Lord St John by whom it was alienated in 1573 to Richard Morton.

From the History of Buckinghamshire: "...A mesne lordship in those parts of Crawley known by the late 15th Century as Broughtons Manor and Filliols Manor respectively was held under the Giffard Honour by the Earls of Oxford. Record of their interest in Crawley dates from the early 13th Century, and continued until the abolition of feudal tenure in the 17th century, a temporary grant of his prerogatives being made in 1584 by the Earl of Oxford to Peter Palmer..."

Her daughter Anne married Sir Thomas Denys of Holcombe Rogus. Her husband, however, kept a mistress, Jane Lambert, by whom he had four sons, and was estranged from Agnes. In 1578, Queen Elizabeth attempted to reconcile the couple but failed.

Agnes was often at court. Some authors says that the Marchioness had no oficial post at Court, other says she was lady of the chamber at various times. In 1587, she was one of two women of higher rank than countess who were available to serve as chief mourner at the funeral of Mary, Queen of Scots. When the Countess of Rutland was chosen instead, it was a deliberate insult to the Scottish Queen?s memory.

On 24 Nov 1588, the Marchioness carried Queen Elizabeth's train in the celebrations following the defeat of the Spanish Armada. This formal procession moved through London from Somerset House to St. Paul's. The Queen rode in a chariot. Agnes, her arms full of fabric, was on foot behind her.

In 1592 she conveyed the site of the manor of Gaynes Hall to William Wallopp and Richard Beckenshaw. The Marquess died in 1598, and in 1599 his widow was dealing with the manor. Later in the same year, with Sir Giles Broughton, kt., and his wife Catherine, her daughter, she conveyed to Oliver Williams, alias Cromwell, of Hinchingbrooke, the uncle of the future Protector, the manors of Gaynes Hall, alias Gaynes Perry and Dillington. In 1600 Oliver Cromwell, as of Godmanchester, assigned to Richard Cromwell of the same, his brother, a lease of Gaynes Park made to him in 1599 for 21 years by Agnes, Marchioness of Winchester, widow; and in 1601 he, with his second wife Anne, conveyed the manors of Gaynes Hall, alias Gaynes Perry, alias Dillington, to Sir Thomas Lake.

The Marchioness of Winchester died at Basing in 1601. 
HOWARD, Agnes (I671953456)
 
425 Biography
Eldest son of Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk by his second wife, Agnes Tilney. Educated at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, under Gardiner, and came to court at an early age. In 1531 Howard went on his first embassy to Scotland, and was entertained by James V at St. Andrews. His mission seems to have been to propose a marriage between James and the Princess Mary. He was liked and trusted by Henry VIII and was with him at Boulonge; and at Anne Boleyn coronation was Deputy Earl Marshal; and he was sent on missions to Scotland and France. In Feb 1534-5 he went to Scotland to invest James V with the Garter (State Papers Henry VIII, v. 2 ; Diurnal of Occurrents, Bannatyne Club, 19). Chapuys, who suspected much more than was really designed by the mission, added, in his letter to Carlos V, 'People are astonished at the despatch of so stupid and indiscreet a man'. But Queen Margaret on 4 Mar wrote to Henry, commending Howard's 'honorable, pleasaunt, and wys' behaviour. King James V, who a few days previously bore similar testimony, offered him the confiscated lands and goods of James Hamilton, the sheriff of Linlithgow, brother of Patrick Hamilton. These Howard refused, and Hamilton was restored to favour. In 1535 he was in France on diplomatic business (Chronicle of Calais, Camd. Soc. p. 45). In Feb 1535-6 Howard was again sent to Scotland, in company with William Barlow, the bishop-elect of St. Asaph, to recommend to James and his court the adoption in Scotland of Henry's ecclesiastical policy. Howard was instructed to set forth 'his grace's proceed-inges', and to 'inculce and harpe uppon the spring of honour and proffit'. He had also to propose to James an interview with Henry. He returned to Scotland once more in Apr 1536 (Hamilton Papers, i. 29, &c.; Diurnal of Occurrents, p. 20).



Lord William Howard of Effingham, through his wife Catherine, succeeded to the Manor of Gaines, and was succeeded by his daughter Agnes.



In 1537 and 1541 Howard was engaged on an embassy to France (cf. State Papers Henry VIII, vol. viii. pt. v. contd.) While there Cromwell informed him and his colleague, the bishop of Worcester, of the death of Jane Seymour, and, at the King's request, asked them to report which of the French princesses would be suitable for her successor.



His wife, Margaret Gamage, was one of the ladies of his sister, Queen Catherine Howard. In Dec 1541, when Catherine was arrested, both Margaret and her husband were tried and found guilty of concealing her unchastity. They were later pardoned. They lost, however, the manor and rectory of Tottenham, which had been granted to them in 1537 (Newcourt, Repertorium, i. 753). Howard accompanied the Earl of Hertford in the invasion of Scotland of 1544. In the same year he took part in the siege of Boulogne, and in 1546 one of the many orders in council directed to him instructed him to prepare ships for the 'sure wafting' of the money which Wotton and Harrington were to convey to the army in France.



From 29 Oct 1552 to Dec 1553 he was Lord Deputy and Governor of Calais, and 14 Nov 1553 Lord High Admiral; Lord Clinton, however, the former admiral, did not resign at once, so that the patent was not made out until 10 Mar 1553-4. In Oct of that year Privy Councillor under Edward VI. On 2 Jan 1553-4 he received the Spanish ambassadors at the Tower wharf, and rode with them up through the city to Durham Place. William was made Knight of the Garter in 1554. When Sir Thomas Wyatt approached London, Howard was very active in the defence of the Queen. He shut Ludgate in Wyatt's face. 'And that night' (3 Feb 1553-4), says Wriothesley, 'the said Lord Admirall watched the [London] Bridge with iii c men, and brake the drawbridge, and set rampeers with great ordinance there'. Created Baron Howard of Effingham 11 Mar 1553/4 for his defence of London during the rebellion. The manor of Effingham (Surrey) had been granted to him by Edward VI in 1551.



Perhaps his arguments with the Queen saved the life of princess Elizabeth after that affair. He befriended Elizabeth, but his popularity with the Navy saved him from Mary resentment. He became Elizabeth's principal protector during the months that followed. By the next year his loyalty to the princess made him a suspected person; the Imperial Ambassador wrote to his master that it was "highly probable" that Howard knew of and consented to plots in which Elizabeth was believed to be involved. In Apr 1555, he urged in Council that her restrictions be removed and that she be brought back to Court. In 1554 he remonstrated with Gage for his ill-usage of the princess, had a conversation with her in the Tower in 1555, and when in 1558 Elizabeth came as a prisoner to Hampton Court, he visited her, and 'marvellous honorably used her grace'. His obvious support of the heir finally brought him the loss of his great office of Lord Admiral. He met Felipe of Spain when he came to England at the Needles, and though there were fears that he would carry him away to France, he brought him safely to Southampton. In 1555 he conveyed Felipe to Flanders. But he was still exposed to suspicion, the popularity that Elizabeth and her cause brought him made Howard a dangerous enemy, so Mary found it expedient to mollify him with a pension and finally with appointment as Lord Chamberlain. In 1558 Mary designed to send him on an embassy to France, but he was too ill to go.

When Elizabeth became queen he had great influence with her and filled several important posts. He was reappointed Lord Chamberlain and resumed his diplomatic role. Early in 1559 Lord Howard, accompanied with his eldest son, Charles, went as negotiator to the peace conference at Cateau-Cambresis. He supported the Queen against the northern earls in the rebellion of 1569 and in 1572, ceased to be Lord Chamberlain on becoming Lord Privy Seal.


Margaret, Lady Howard of Effingham, was listed among the ladies of honor in 1558/9. In 1578/9, she took delivery of New Year?s gifts for the Queen. Her name is sometimes written as ?Lady Haward?. There was a portrait of Margaret Gamage in the Pembroke collection in 1561.

William Howard was one of the considerable body of Elizabethan officeholders who went to their graves complaining that they were being driven into beggary by their sacrifices to the Queen's service. No doubt the complaints were uttered partly in the hope that travail would be rewarded and because their expense and responsability stood as evidence of the Queen's trust. But with Lord William the whimperings of sacrifice seem to have been justified. He received pensions and lands and had access to the Crown which should have brought a shower of gifts from office-seekers. But his expenses at court were high, his large family included several daughters to be married off, and the offices in his direct gift were not many. As a result he was never able to build more than a modesdy comfortable landed estate. From his father he had lands worth not quite £100 a year, but all except the manor of Little Bookham in Surrey had quickly been sold. From Henry VIII he had received Reigate Priory -which became one of the principal family residences and stayed in the hands of his descendants through the seventeenth century- Eastbrooke and Southwick manors in Sussex, West Humble in Surrey, and the priory of Barnstaple in Devon. From Edward VI, Howard got Great Bookham (an important Surrey manor), the smaller manor of Effingham from which he took his title, and a moiety of Reigate Manor. Mary gave him lands in Devonshire and Somersetshire, which he sold, and Elizabeth added the manor of Kingswood Liberty. In 1560 Howard bought Blechingley (valued at £45 a year), with another important residence and influence over a parliamentary borough, and lands at Lingfield, Hackstal, and Billeshurst. The properties, most of them in Surrey, were worth altogether about £400 a year. Salaries and pensions provided him with as much again, but he found that his total income of £86i 6s. 8d. was totally inadequate to meet his needs. In a document prepared for the Queen about 1565, he said that his expenses exceeded £l,500 a year without reckoning anything "put in to my persse for to spend in hawkyng and hontyng & in rewards gyvyn for my pleasiuir" or for repairs to his house or for the dowry of two hundred marks a year for his eldest daughter. His expense for going on progress ran to two hundred pounds a year, and gifts and rewards at Christmas and New Year's cost another hundred pounds. He was £2,OOO in debt and saw no way to recover himself or to provide a living for his younger children without a substancial gift from the Queen. Of course, William Howard may have been exaggerating the disparity between income and expense in the hope of maximizing the grant to relieve it. But certainly he thought that he was being ruined in his service to the crown and that the Queen should lift him up from poverty. In the next few years, he did make some kind of settlement with his creditors without selling any more lands, but he remained relatively poor for the rest of his life. There is a story that during his last years he begged to be made an Earl but was refused because he lacked the means to support such a dignity.

Lord William's friendship with the Queen and his recognized fidelity to her interests during difficult times had created a fund of good will upon which his son Charles could hope to draw. But it might also be possible to argue that during his last years Lord William, by occupying one of the major offices, may have kept Charles from receiving important preferment. Charles's father, however, was evidently declining by 1570, which mar have meant that Charles took over some partion of the chamberlain's duties. By the end of 1572, Lord William was no longer able to carry on and gave up his staff. But because he still needed any salary and perquisites the crown could supply him, he was made Lord Privy Seal, an officer whose responsibilities had become insignificant. He condnued to decline, and late in Jan 1573, he died "full of years and honour, being of most approved fidelity and unshaken courage". He was buried, in accordance with a will drawn up in 1569, in the church at Reigate.

By the terms of the will, he did not leave his son a rich man. Most of his properties had been settled by another instrument, which does not survive; the will mentions only the manor of Esher, which was to go to Charles along with his robes and collar of the Garter (a grant contrary to the statutes of the order). The younger son, William, got a small money grant, and the rest of the estate after debts were paid went to Lady Howard, who was asked to see that dowries were pro vided for daughters still unmarried. The language used concerning Esher implies that the manor was in Lord Howard's possession, but it had been given by Mary to the bishops of Winchester, who still held it in 1573. What Howard may have had was a promised lease, since Charles did get a lease in 1578 by threatening that if Bishop Horne would not co-operate he would "compass his object in some other way, without any regard for the Bishop's feelings". From sources other than the will it is known that the lands at Lingfield and Great Bookham were settled on the younger son and that Reigate and its lands went to the jointure of the widow. When she died in 1581, Charles Howard paid a livery fine of £58 3s. 6d. for delivery of lands into his possession.

Sources:

Collins's Peerage

Kenny, R.: Elizabeth's Admiral 
HOWARD, Sir William 1st Barron of Effingham (I671953448)
 
426 Biography

Angier Buchanan Duke was born on 8 Dec 1884 in Durham, Durham, North Carolina, the son of Benjamin Newton Duke and Sarah pearson Angier.[1]

He married Cordelia Drexel Biddle.[1]Although Cordelia is shown as a widow living with her parents on the 1920 US Census[2], she actually was separated from her husband Angier. Their divorce was granted in October 1921.[3]

Angier drowned on 3 Sept 1923 when he overturned the dinghy of his yacht as he stepped into it.[4] He is buried at the Maplewood Cemetery, Durham, Durham, North Carolina.[1]  
DUKE, Angier Buchanan (I11476)
 
427 Biography

Benjamin Newton Duke (April 25, 1855 ? January 8, 1929) was a U.S. tobacco, textile, energy industrialist and philanthropist. He was the son of Washington Duke and half-brother to Brodie Leonidas Duke (1846?1919) and full brother to James Buchanan Duke (1856?1925).


On February 21, 1875, Benjamin Duke married Sarah Pearson Angier with whom he had a daughter, Mary Lillian Duke, and a son, Angier Buchanan Duke. He entered his father's tobacco business and in 1890, became vice-president of the American Tobacco Company.


In 1892, the Duke family opened their first textile business in Durham, North Carolina with Benjamin Duke at its head. In 1905, he and his brother James founded the Southern Power Company which became known as Duke Power. The company supplied electrical power to the Duke textile factory and within two decades, their power facilities had been greatly expanded and they were supplying electricity to more than 300 cotton mills and other industrial companies through an electrical grid that supplied cities and towns in the Piedmont Region of North and South Carolina.


Benjamin Duke and his brother were major contributors to the economic growth of the North Carolina economy and would expand into other areas with sizable investments in railroads and banks. Benjamin was a primary benefactor of Trinity College after it relocated to Durham in 1892. Over the years he donated substantial funds for improvements, additions, and scholarships. Between 1926 and 1929 he donated approximately $3,000,000 (more than $30,000,000 in 2005 dollars) to twenty-seven different southern institutions of higher learning. Today, Duke University offers the B. N. Duke Scholars program.


Following his passing at his home in New York City in 1929, Benjamin Duke's remains were brought back to North Carolina for interment with his father and brother James in Memorial Chapel in the Duke University Chapel on the campus of Duke University.  
DUKE, Benjamin Newton (I11474)
 
428 Biography

Born about 1770 in Brunswick, Virginia, USA

Son of John Duke and Lydia Lewis

His father had been born in Virginia, where the family had come from England in the 17th century. His mother, Dicey Jones, was of Welsh ancestry.

Brother of William Duke, Samuel Duke, John Duke, Hardyman Duke, James Duke and Robert Duke

Husband of Dicey Jones

Taylor was a captain of the militia in his district and a constable.

Father of William James Duke, Mary Polly Duke, Reany Duke, Amelia Duke, Kirkland R Duke, Malinda Duke, John T Duke, George Washington Duke, Doctor B Duke and Robert F Duke

Died Sep 1850 in Chapel Hill, Orange, North Carolina, United States
Sources

?The Dukes of Durham, 1865-1929,? written by Robert F. Durden, published by Duke University Press, Durham, North Carolina, USA, 1975. http://books.google.com/books?id=U4rpkYZsOggC&pg=PA3&lpg=PA3&dq=taylor+duke+dicey+jones&source=bl&ots=yHQwlg1jXS&sig=dTGTLkZ3seXwcoYQwnliqHABGsg&hl=en&sa=X&ei=nkBYVNWwMYSbNp2qgfAN&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=taylor%20duke%20dicey%20jones&f=false  
DUKE, John Taylor (I3413)
 
429 Biography

from Jouett Taylor Prisley family history and genealogy:

William was fortunate to acquire some wealth from his uncle Thomas Stegg, brother of William's mother, Grace Stegg.
In 1673 he (William Byrd) married Mary Horsmander, daughter of Col. Warham Horsmander, and brought her to America in 1674 where they had their first child that year. They settled with other English colonists near the falls of the James River in Virginia. Stanard's Emigrants places them in Henrico and Charles City counties. In 1691, the Byrds moved to Westover VA where he was councilor, burgess and receiver general. As a prosperous planter, merchant, Indian trader and "solid citizen", they were on the way to establishing the Byrds with First Family of Virginia status.
Pedigrees were traced in London in 1702. In 1763 ancestry traced to Byrds of Brexton, Cheshire, as shown in Writings of Col. William Byrd.

Excerpt from the History of Byrd Family
John Byrd (a London goldsmith) and Grace Stegg
William Byrd I (b.1652) married in 1673 to Mary Horsmander (they settled in VA in 1674)[1]
William Byrd II (b. 28 Mar 1674-26 August 1744) married Lucy Parke
William Byrd III (b.1707)
Daniel Byrd I (b. 1755-1806) after the Rev. War he moved with Elijah, Solomon, Hezekiah and John Byrd and settled in the 96 District, Edgefield County, SC.; in the 1790 census Daniel Bird I was head of household with 2 sons and 5 daughters. His wife's name was Lucinda.
One daughter married Sanders Rearden, one married Jadock Magruder and one married Benjamin Tradwell.[2]

Father Col Warham St. Ledger Horsmanden[3]

Mother Susanna Beeching.

Maria's father was a Cavalier who fled to Virginia with his wife and children when Cromwell was in power.

Maria Horsmanden married firstly Samuel Filmer of East Sutton, Kent, England, third son of Sir Robert Filmer, who made his will on July 17th, 1667 and died in 1670 leaving Maria as a young widow in Virginia where they had lived for a time.

Samuel bequeathed mourning rings to his friends and cousins to include Mrs. Frances Stephens, the wife of Samuel Stephens in Virginia (afterwards Lady Berkeley); to Warham Horsmanden and Susan his wife, etc; and he gave to my friend and cousin Mrs. Mary Horsmanden, eldest daughter of the aforesaid Warham and Susan Horsmanden of Ham, in the parish of Lenham, County Kent (between whom and myself is an agreement of marriage), the whole of his real and personal estate, provided they had no children, who otherwise were to share in the estate. Samuel Filmer and Maria Horsmanden had no children.

In 1670 when the will was proved, his eighteen-year old widow, Maria, was living in Virginia though her parents were in England. It is possible that they came to Virginia after their marriage.

Maria remarried when she was about nineteen or twenty years old to William Byrd I of Henrico, Virginia, and later "Westover" in Charles City County.

It is not known if she brought property into the marriage. William Byrd refers to property which should have come to her under the will of Sir Edward Filmer, bachelor uncle of Samuel Filmer, and mentions a suit. His will (P.C.C.) was dated 17 July 1670.

Together they had five children, the most famous being their son, William Byrd II, the Black Swan of Virginia. Maria died 9 November 1699 and was buried at Westover, Charles City County, Virginia.

The epitaph of Maria Horsmanden Byrd at Westover reads as follows:

"Here Lyeth the Body of Mary Byrd Late wife of William Byrd Esq. and Daughter of Warham Horsmanden Esq Who Dyed the 9th Day of November 1699 in the 47th Year of Her age" Mary is in the "old" Westover Parish Cemetery on the grounds of Westover Plantation 1/4 mile from the mansion. About 1730 the construction of the present Westover Church was completed at its present site on Herring Creek about 1 1/2 mile north of Westover mansion.
Name

Name: Mary /Horsmanden/: Source: #S404823534: Source: #S291503039: Source: #S404999920: Source: #S404999041: Source: #S404997967
Name: Mary Maria /Horsmanden/[4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13]

Birth

Date: 1652
Place: Lenham Parish, Kent, , England: Source: #S404823534: Source: #S291503039: Source: #S404997967

Marriage

Date: 1672
Place: Charles City, Charles, Virginia, United States: Source: #S291503039

Event

Event:

Type: Arrival
Date: 1676
Place: Virginia[14]

Death

Date: 9 Nov 1699
Place: Charles City, Charles, Virginia
Burial: Westover Church [15]  
BYRD, Col William Evelyn (I8995)
 
430 Biography

From Wikipedia:

"James Buchanan Duke, known by the nickname "Buck", was born near Durham, North Carolina, on December 23, 1856 to Washington Duke and his second wife, Artelia Roney Duke."


"Washington Duke (1820?1905), had owned a tobacco company that his sons James Buchanan Duke and Benjamin Newton Duke (1855?1929) took over in the 1880s. In 1885, James Buchanan Duke acquired a license to use the first automated cigarette making machine (invented by James Albert Bonsack), and by 1890, Duke supplied 40% of the American cigarette market (then known as pre-rolled tobacco). In that year, Duke consolidated control of his four major competitors under one corporate entity, the American Tobacco Company, which was a monopoly in the American cigarette market."

"At the start of the 1900s, Duke tried to conquer the British market as he had done America, eventually forcing the then divided British manufacturers to merge into the Imperial Tobacco Company of Great Britain and Ireland, Ltd (Imperial Tobacco). After two years of intense competition in Great Britain, Imperial Tobacco took the fight to the U.S. market, forcing American Tobacco to look for a settlement. This resulted in an agreement whereby American Tobacco controlled the American trade, Imperial Tobacco controlled the trade in the British territories, and a third, cooperative venture named the British-American Tobacco Company was set up between the two to control the sale of tobacco in the rest of the world. During this time, Duke was repeatedly sued by business partners and shareholders. In 1906, the American Tobacco Company was found guilty of antitrust violations, and was ordered to be split into four separate companies: American Tobacco Company, Liggett and Myers, R.J. Reynolds, and the P. Lorillard Company."

"In 1892, the Dukes opened their first textile firm in Durham, North Carolina, that was run by Benjamin Duke. At the turn of the century, Buck Duke organized the American Development Company to acquire land and water rights on the Catawba River. In 1904, he established the Catawba Power Company and the following year he and his brother founded the Southern Power Company, which became known as Duke Power, the precursor to the Duke Energy conglomerate. The company supplied electrical power to the Duke's textile factory and within two decades, their power facilities had been greatly expanded and they were supplying electricity to more than 300 cotton mills and other industrial companies. Duke Power established an electrical grid that supplied cities and towns in the Piedmont Region of North and South Carolina. Lake James, a power-generating reservoir in Western North Carolina, was created by the company in 1928 and named in Duke's honor."

"In 1911, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld an order breaking up the American Tobacco Company's monopoly. The company was then divided into several smaller enterprises, of which only the British-American Tobacco Company remained in Duke's control. After his death in 1925, there was a great deal of controversy, and some historians suspect that some resentful Imperial Tobacco executives were feeling some anger at Duke for having lost the Tobacco War between Duke's company and Imperial Tobacco."

"Duke was married twice, first in 1904 to Lillian Fletcher McCredy. They divorced in 1906 and had no children. In 1907 he married the widow Nanaline Holt Inman, with whom he had his only child, a daughter, Doris, born November 22, 1912. Doris was raised at Duke Farms located in Hillsborough, New Jersey, where her father had worked with landscapers such as James Leal Greenleaf (a member of the firm of Frederick Law Olmsted), and Horatio Buckenham to transform more than 2,000 acres (8 km2) of farmland and woodlots into an extraordinary landscape containing 2 conservatories, 9 lakes, 35 fountains, 45 buildings, countless pieces of sculpture, over 2 miles (3 km) of stone walls and more than 18 miles (29 km) of roadway.[4] Duke died in New York City on October 10, 1925, and is interred with his father and brother in the Memorial Chapel on the campus of Duke University."  
DUKE, James Buchanan (I11479)
 
431 Biography

James Henry Roberts Cromwell was the son of Oliver Cromwell and Eva Roberts.  
Family F4146
 
432 Biography

Mary Caroline Clinton Duke, daughter of Rachel Vickers and Jesse Clinton, was first wife of George Washington "Wash" Duke.

Mary inherited 73 acres and $300 cash from the estate of her father, which her husband used the $300 legacy to purchase 98 additional acres of the Clinton Estate on Ellerbee Creek.

She was buried at the CLINTON-DUKE-WOODS FAMILY Cemetery, located in Durham, NC, about 500 feet north of the house at 1001 Chalk Level Road at Shaftsbury Drive, this abandoned cemetery, last burial, 1935, has 15 legibly marked graves. as of 1981.

Her cemetery stones were vandalized and the stone fragments are stored at Duke Homestead State Historic Site, Duke Homestead Road in Durham, NC.  
CLINTON, Mary Caroline (I11470)
 
433 Biography

Robert was a dealer in leaf tobacco in Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Robert married Mary Duke and they had five children, Mary, Benjamin, George, Bertha and Edwin "Buck" Lyon.

Family links: Parents: Zachariah Inge Lyon (1815 - 1887) Nancy B Walker Lyon (1817 - 1873)

Spouse: Mary Elizabeth Duke Lyon (1853 - 1893)*

Children: George Leonidas Lyon (1881 - 1916)*

Siblings: James Edwin Lyon (1839 - 1908)* Annie B. Lyon Durham (1841 - 1923)* Cadmus H Lyon (1843 - 1874)* John C Lyon (1845 - 1873)* Robert E. Lyon (1847 - 1911) Sarah Elizabeth Lyon Beasley (1849 - 1931)* Zachariah Francis Lyon (1852 - 1906)* William G Lyon (1854 - 1856)* Andrew Jasper Lyon (1858 - 1879)* Thomas Pride Lyon (1870 - 1943)**

Burial: Maplewood Cemetery Durham Durham County North Carolina, USA Plot: Section W, Washington Duke Masoleum  
LYON, Robert Edwin (I11473)
 
434 Biography

George Washington Duke (December 18, 1820 ? May 8, 1905) was famous as an American tobacco industrialist and philanthropist who fought in the American Civil War.

Born 28 Dec 1820 in Orange County, North Carolina, USA

Son of John Taylor Duke and Dicey Jones

Brother of William James Duke, Mary Polly Duke, Reany Duke, Amelia Duke, Kirkland R Duke, Malinda Duke, John T Duke, Doctor B Duke and Robert F Duke

Husband of Mary Caroline (Clinton) Duke ? married 9 Aug 1842

Husband of Artelia (Roney) Duke ? married 9 Dec 1852

Father of Sidney Taylor Duke, Brodie Leonidas Duke, Mary Elizabeth (Duke) Lyon, Benjamin Newton Duke and James Buchanan Duke

Died 8 May 1905 in Durham, North Carolina, USA

From Wikipedia[1]:

"Duke was born in Orange County, North Carolina (present day Durham County, North Carolina), to Taylor Duke (c1770?1849) and Dicey Jones (c1780?1860). On August 9, 1842, he married Mary Caroline Clinton (1825?1847) with whom he had two children: Sidney Taylor Duke (1844?1858) and Brodie Leonidas Duke (1846?1919)."

"After Mary Duke's death at age twenty-two, he married Artelia Roney (1829?1858) on December 9, 1852. Both Mary and Artelia died of typhoid fever. With Artelia Duke, he had three children: Mary Elizabeth Duke (1853?1893) who married Robert E. Lyon; Benjamin Newton Duke (1855?1929) and James Buchanan Duke (1856?1925)."

"Washington Duke served in the Confederate Navy (1863?1865) during the American Civil War against his will. He was vigorously opposed to slavery though some have mistakenly concluded that he owned slaves because he once purchased a slave. In reality he was purchasing the slave's freedom and he set her free immediately after the purchase as is shown by the census records shortly thereafter when she was living on his land as a free woman. It is also alleged that he was once recorded selling slaves but this is not correct either. He mentioned that slaves might be sold at the same time as a sale of his property. He did not say they were his slaves and, in fact, the 1860 census, just prior to this "recorded" event shows that he did not own slaves. The third reason some claim that he owned slaves is that he once hired a slave from a slave owner to work for him on a temporary basis during which that slave escaped. It has been reported that he actually assisted the slave in the escape and he hired him so that the slave would have time to get to a northern state before Washington reported him missing."

"After the war, he grew tobacco, but in 1874, he sold his rural home and moved to the city of Durham, where he began his tobacco business. His workers hand processed tobacco into a form that could be sold by the bag for pipe smokers or hand rolled into cigarettes. In 1881, the W. Duke Sons and Company was established as a tobacco manufacturer and was soon a marketer of pre-rolled cigarettes. In 1884 he was nominated by the Republican Party for North Carolina State Treasurer, an elected position, and lost."

"After a "tobacco war" among the five large manufacturers, Washington's son James Duke became president of the dominant American Tobacco Company and son Benjamin its vice-president. They would build the company into a multi-national corporation and a monopoly. In 1880 the Dukes were residing in Durham, and Washington was living with his son James and two sisters-in-law: Bettie Roney (born c.1830) and Annie Roney (born c.1846). Also in the household were Jennie Procter (born c.1862) as "house assistant" and two servants: Louisa Sparkman (born c.1867); and Laura Hopkins (born c.1869)."

"Duke used his influence to have Trinity College moved to Durham. The institution opened its new campus in 1892 with him and son Benjamin as its principal benefactors. In 1896, Duke gifted the college with $100,000 (about $2,200,000 in 2005 dollars) on the condition that it open its doors to women. Trinity College was renamed in honor of Duke in 1924, becoming Duke University."

"Washington Duke was interred in Memorial Chapel in the Duke University Chapel on the campus of Duke University. He is memorialized by a statue at the entrance to Duke's East Campus."


The following is from the Find A Grave website:

Birth: Dec. 18, 1820 Orange County North Carolina, USA Death: May 8, 1905 Durham Durham County North Carolina, USA

Washington Duke (1820-1905) aka George Washington Duke I, was a manufacturer. (b. December 18, 1820; Durham County, North Carolina, USA - d. May 08, 1905; Durham, Durham County, North Carolina, USA)

Parents: Washington was born in 1820 to Taylor Duke (c1770-1830) and Dicey Jones (c1780-?).

Birth: He was born on December 18, 1820 in Durham County, North Carolina.

First marriage: He married Mary Caroline Clinton (1825-1847) on August 09, 1842. Mary died of typhoid fever in 1847.

Children: Sidney Taylor Duke (1844-1858) and Brodie Leonidas Duke (1846-1919).

Second marriage: After her death he married Artelia Romey (1829-1858) on December 9, 1852. Artelia died of typhoid fever in 1858.

Children: With Artelia he had three children: Mary Elizabeth Duke (1853-1893) who married Robert E. Lyon; Benjamin Newton Duke (1855-1929) who married Sarah Pearson Angier on February 21, 1877; and James Taylor Duke (1856-1925) who married Lillian McCreedy and later married Nanaline Holt (1869-1961) on July 23, 1907 in Brooklyn, New York.

Civil War: Washington served in the Confederate Navy from 1863 to 1865, in the American Civil War.

Tobacco: After the war he grew tobacco and started a manufacturing business which consisted of hand processing tobacco to make it into a form that could be sold by the bag for people to smoke in pipes or to hand roll their own cigarettes. The family would travel throughout the United States to market their products then return to their farm. By 1880, James B. Duke turned the firm of W. Duke Sons & Co. into a manufacturer and marketer of pre-rolled cigarettes.


Durham, North Carolina: In the 1880 US Census the Dukes are residing in Durham, North Carolina and Washington is living with his son James and two sister-in-laws: Bettie Romey (1830-?) and Annie Romey (1846-?). Also in the household are Jennie Procter (1862-?) as "house assistant" and two servants: Louisa Sparkman (1867-?); and Laura Hopkins (1869-?).

American Tobacco: After a "tobacco war" among the five large manufacturers, James Duke emerged as president of the dominant American Tobacco company, which became a multinational corporation and a monopoly.

Relationships: He was the grandfather of Doris Duke (1912-1993).

Family links: Spouses: Mary Caroline Clinton Duke (1825 - 1847) Artelia Roney Duke (1829 - 1858)

Children: Brodie Leonidas Duke (1846 - 1919)* Mary Elizabeth Duke Lyon (1853 - 1893)* Benjamin Newton Duke (1855 - 1929)* James Buchanan Duke (1856 - 1925)*

Burial: Duke University Chapel Durham Durham County North Carolina, USA
The following is text excerpted from "The Dukes of Durham,"

+On 04 Apr 1864, he signed a receipt for a private's uniform at Camp Holmes in Raleigh, Wake, North Carolina. He was in duty in the Confederate Navy. He was aboard the ship Indian Chief in the port of Charleston, South Carolina in June 1864. His duty at Charleston was cut short, however, by needs that grew out of the desperate situation of the Confederate forces near Richmond, Virginia. The James River Squadron of the Confederate Navy finally had to man artillery batteries on the banks of the river, and in Sep 1864, Washington Duke, together with additional members from Charleston, was transferred to Virginia. There he became an able artillerist, was promoted to the rank of orderly sergeant, and survived the rain, mud, and flood waters that harassed the men at Battery Brooke on the James. In the confusion surrounding the Confederate evacuation on April 01-02, 1864, Washington Duke was captured by Union troops. He was imprisoned in Richmond only a week before General Robert E Lee's surrender on April 09 at Appomattox Court House. Gaining his parole later in the spring or early summer, Washington Duke was sent by ship to New Bern, NC. From there he walked home to his reunion with his children--Brodie, Mary, Ben, and Buck.

When General William T Sherman accepted the surrender of General Joseph E Johnston and the last major Confederate force east of the Mississippi at a nearby farmhouse (The Bennett Place Homestead), Durham gained its first claim to the world's attention. Consisting of fewer than a hundred people at the end of the war, the hamlet lay some four miles to the south of Washington Duke's farm.


In addition to the coming of the railroad, the development of a new variety of tobacco, bright leaf, had a great deal to do with the rise of Durham and the postwar career of Washington Duke.


FROM TRINITY TO DUKE

a brief history from DukeHomestead.org website: "Tell them every man to think for himself."

After retiring from the tobacco business in1880, Washington Duke began working to bring a small Methodist college to Durham. Trinity College, located in Randolph County, was adopted by the Methodists of North Carolina in 1856. By the late 1880s, the school barely had enough money to operate. The Methodist Church in North Carolina did not have the funds to support the institution, and the school lacked the leadership of a strong president. With the appointment of Pres. John Crowell in 1887, things began looking up for Trinity. Ben Duke gave the struggling institution $1,000 that year, beginning the family's association with Trinity.

The new president aimed to grow the struggling school to compete with top universities in the nation. Part of this vision involved a move from rural Randolph County to a city.

Durham, the quickly-growing factory town, sought a college. Durham bid against Raleigh for a Baptist Female Seminary (what became Meredith College), and he lost. Washington Duke felt Durham?s embarrassment at this loss, and turned his focus to Trinity College. He offered to match Raleigh?s bid of $35,000 and provide an additional endowment of $50,000. Julian Shakespeare Carr, another prominent Durham businessman, provided fifty acres of land as a site for the school. The college accepted Durham?s bid. Work on the new
campus began in 1890, and it opened to students in 1892.


The Duke family continued to support Trinity in its early Durham years, with Washington serving on the building committee and Ben and Buck Duke lending monetary support. Trinity was not the only institution to receive the support of the Duke family in the late 19th century. The family regularly gave to the Oxford Orphan Asylum and Kittrell College for African Americans. Long before the existence of Duke Hospital, the family became heavily involved with both Watts and Lincoln Hospitals.

As for Trinity, Washington Duke endowed the school with $100,000 in 1896. Though he refused to have the school renamed as "Duke College," Washington informed Trinity that the money did come with the condition that the college "open its doors to women, placing them on equal footing with men."

The Duke family?s support helped Trinity to grow its student body and campus, as well as the quality of the faculty and fields of study. In addition to funding, the family supported the academic freedom of Trinity College?s professors. Members of the Duke family also began to attend Trinity, with both Ben Duke's son and daughter graduating in the early 1900s.

Through the 1910s, members of the Duke family planted the seeds of what would become "The Duke Endowment." However, it was not until 1924 that James B. Duke signed the indenture for the endowment, handing over $40,000,000 to its trustees. With the endowment, Trinity College became Duke University. Today visitors to Duke?s East Campus will see a sculpture of Washington Duke, sitting in a chair and watching over the school he and his family helped to build.


 
DUKE, George Washington (I11467)
 
435 Biography
Mary Elizabeth Duke (1853-1893) was the first child and only daughter of Wash Duke and his second wife, Artelia Roney. Mary, along with her father and brothers, worked in the family tobacco business after the Civil War. Her job was filling, closing, and labeling the cotton bags in which their processed tobacco was sold.

Mary briefly attended the New Garden School (later Guilford College) and, as the family business grew, took on some management responsibilities. She married Robert Edwin Lyon, a Durham businessman. She and three of their children later died of pneumonia

The Duke family financed two buildings in their sister's memory: a science building at Guilford College and a new home for the Southern Conservatory of Music, at Duke and Main streets near the Duke's tobacco factory and Washington Duke's home, in Durham. Mary's daughter, Mary Stagg, and her husband, J.E. Stagg, donated the carillon at Duke Memorial Methodist Church in memory of their mothers.

Burial: Maplewood Cemetery Durham Durham County North Carolina, USA Plot: Section W, Duke Masoleum  
DUKE, Mary Elizabeth (I11472)
 
436 BIOGRAPHY:

1850 CENSUS DATA: The 1850 census, Floyd Co., Ga, 30th Subdivision, taken 10 October 1850, shows Francis M. Bailey, age 30, born GA & farming. Living with him were: Lucy Ann, female, age 2?, born GA; W. F., male, age 5, born GA; Martha A., female, age 2, born GA.

1860 CENSUS DATA: The federal census of 1860, Carroll Co., GA, 5th Dist., Chanceville Post Office, page 16, 22 August 190, shows Marion Bailey, age 39, farming and born SC. Living with him were: Lucy Ann, wife, age 34, born GA; Wm. F., son, age 14, born GA; Martha A., dau., age 15, born GA; and M. Ann? R., dau., age 13, born GA. Also, Georgia A. Dale, age 3 is shown living in the household.
NOTE: The identity of this Georgia A. Dale is not known at this time. The Georgia A. Dale that was the daughter of Valentine Burnett Dale and Susan Moriah Hendon was born in 1880, and therefore, too young to be age 3 in the 1860 census.

1870 CENSUS DATA: The federal census of 1870, Carroll Co., GA, 5th Dist., Chanceville Post Office, page 20, 16 July 1960, shows Marion Bailey, age 52, farming and born SC. Living with him were: Lucy, wife, age 47, born GA; Ann, dau., age 22, born GA. Also, Isibella Dale, age 13, born GA; James (Unreadable), age 4; and William Bailey, age 1 (not sure William is son of Marion Bailey) are shown living in the household.

COMMENTARY: The identity of Isibella Dale is not known at this time. John Messer Dale, who first married Mary Jane Bailey, was married to Isabelle Woody in 1870. Whether there is a tie there is not known at this time.

1880 CENSUS DATA: The 1880 census, Carroll Co., GA, Militia Dist., # 729, SD=4, ED=28, Page= 4, 4 June 1880 shows Francis M. Bailey, age ?, born GA & farming. Living with him were: Lucy A., wife, age 58, born GA. Others shown were: Martha Bailey, female, age 13, niece; Wm. T. H. Bailey, male, age 11, nephew; F. M. Hanson, male, age 9, grandson; Lucy A. Johnson, female, age 9 granddaughter.

NOTE: The identity of Martha Bailey, Wm. T. H. Bailey, F. M. Hanson, and Lucy A. Johnson are not known at this time.

NOTE: Frances Marion and Lucy are shown living next door to their daughter, Martha Almeady Bailey Hanson and her family.

 
BAILEY, Francis Marion (I3354)
 
437 BIOGRAPHY:

1880 CENSUS DATA: The 1880 federal census, Carroll Co., GA, Militia Dist., # 729, SD=4, ED=28, Page= 4, 4 June 1880 shows Martha, wife, age 32, born GA. She is living with husband, J. F. M. Hanson, age 38, born GA, and farming. Children shown were: Ruben W., son, age 5; Martha A., dau., age 2; Thos. A., son, age 1; Jn. B., age 1. All children born GA.

1900 CENSUS DATA: The 1900 federal census, Carroll Co., GA, Banning Dist., SD=4, ED=4, sheet 20, 28 June 1900, shows Almady?, wife, age 52, born Feb. 1848 in GA. She is living with husband, Frank Hanson, age 58, born Jan. 1842 in GA, married 27 yrs.and working as ?. Children shown were: John, son, age 21, born Sept 1878; Thomas, son, age 21, born Sept. 1878; Wesley?, son, age 19, born Aug. 1880; Harris?, son, age 18, born Feb. 1882; Robert, son, age 15, born July 1884; Maggie, dau., age 24, born Mar. 1876. All children born GA.

1910 CENSUS DATA: The 1910 census record of Carroll Co., GA shows Armandy Hanson, mother-in-law, age 61, widowed and living in the home of her daughter, Amanda "Maggie" Hanson Blare and her husband, John A. Blare.

THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION PROVIDED BY TERRY ASCHE:

I just came across your Family Tree entry in Ancestry.com a little while ago. It was fun because it connects to mine!

For me, the line goes: Robert S. Bailey, Francis Marion Bailey, Martha Almeady Bailey Hanson, William Franklin Hanson, Evielou Rachel Hanson Thomas, Evelyn Thomas West, and then me - Terry West Asche.

In our family, Francis Marion Bailey's daughter was always known as Almeady. It was only later than I discovered she was also Martha Almeady and in one census, she is listed as Amandy. (I never heard her called Amy - I would love to know where that one came from!!).

She died in 1929 in Villa Rica, Carroll Co., GA and is buried in the Wesley Chapel Cemetery. There is a genealogist there (Myron House) who has wonderful information on the family. We visited him at the university library and we exchanged a lot of information.

Almeady's 1st marriage was to John Robert Hanson on Jan 3, 1868 in Carroll Co., GA. Their first child was my great grandfather - Wililam Franklin Hanson (Jan 3, 1869). Their next 2 children were twins born Oct 22, 1872 - Francis Marion "Bose" Hanson and Lucy Ann Johnson Hanson. We believe, but I have not yet proven, that she was the one my great-grandfather always called "Lutey."

Almeady's 2nd marriage was to James Franklin Marion Hanson, who was her 1st husband's uncle. They were married ca 1873, but I haven't been able to get any documents on that one. There children were:

Reuben W. July 1875 married Martha "Maggie" Benton (7 kids)

Margaret A. Mar 20, 1876 "Maggie" or "Aunt Sis" married John Blair

Thomas A. and John Brown were twins born Sep 12, 1878.

Wesley R. Quillan "Quill" Aug 15, 1880 married Mary Elizabeth Phillips (11 kids)

Henry Lemuel "Lem" Feb 1882

Robert Richard "Bob" July 24, 1884 married Mabell Daughtry (12 kids)

Edgar born 1889-189

Almeady is in the 1850 census in Floyd Co, GA at age 2, and in the 1860 in Carroll Co at age 15 (she aged fast in that decade!!). In 1880, she is the wife of JFM in Carroll Co and in 1920 she is living with her daughter and son-in-law, John and Maggie Blair.

Yet another version of her name comes from her son, John Brown Hanson's Soc Sec Application Form SS5: Al Mealia Bailey. I just think none of them really knew how to spell it!

I have so much information on all of this line, but this should do for a starter. I also have one picture of Almeady - the only one I have been able to find!

Terry Asche
NOTE: The following information provided by Carol Voss, Michigan:
MARTHA ALMEDIA ("ALMEADY")3 BAILEY (FRANCIS MARION2, ROBERT S.1)1,2,3 was born February 1848 in Carroll Co., GA, and died February 10, 1929 in Carroll Co., GA (GA Almedia Hanson). She married (1) JOHN ROBERT HANSON3 January 3, 1868 in Carroll Co., GA (marriage ended)4, son of HENRY HANSON and SARAH STEWART. He was born January 22, 1850 in Carroll Co., GA5, and died May 2, 1914 in Shirley, Van Buren Co., AR5. She married (2) JAMES FRANCIS ("CAPT. FRANK") MARION HANSON6 Abt. 1873, son of REUBEN HANSON and MARGARET JONES. He was born January 1, 1842 in Carroll Co., GA7, and died August 28, 1905.

 
BAILEY, Martha Almedia (I61)
 
438 BIOGRAPHY:
James served in the Civil War - CSA

CENSUS DATA: The 1880 federal census, Carroll Co., GA, Militia Dist., # 729, SD=4, ED=28, Page= 4, 4 June 1880 shows J. F. M. Hanson, age 38, born GA, and farming. Living with him are Martha, wife, age 32, born GA; Ruben W., son, age 5; Martha A., dau., age 2; Thos. A., son, age 1; Jn. B., age 1. All children born GA. CENSUS DATA: The 1900 federal census, Carroll Co., GA, Banning Dist., SD=4, ED=4, sheet 20, 28 June 1900, shows chap? Frank Hanson, age 58, born Jan. 1842 in GA, married 27 yrs.and working as ?. Living with him were Almady?, wife, age 52, born Feb. 1848 in GA; John, son, age 21, born Sept 1878; Thomas, son, age 21, born Sept. 1878; Wesley?, son, age 19, born Aug. 1880; Harris?, son, age 18, born Feb. 1882; Robert, son, age 15, born July 1884; Maggie, dau., age 24, born Mar. 1876. All children born GA. 
HANSON, Captain James Franklin Marion (I43)
 
439 BIOGRAPHY:

1810 CENSUS DATA: A Robt. Bayle is found in the 1810, Pendleton Dist., SC. Family date reported were: 2-2-0-1-0 & 3-2-0-1, plus 8 slaves. Robt. is shown living next a John Archer. John Archer moved to Georgia, lived in close proximity to the Bailey family, and his son, Noah, married Hannah H. Bailey.

NOTE: The above census information provided by Carol Voss, a descendent of the Aderhold line.

1820 CENSUS DATA: The 1820 census data of Pendleton Dist., South Carolina Robert Bailey as head of household. Males listed 0-10=3; 18-26=1; 45=1. Females listed 0-10=1;10-16=4; 45=1.

NOTE: The age ranges and number of children (4 males & 5 females) matches exactly with the known children of Robert S. and Elizabeth "Betsy" Copland Bailey's family.

NOTE: A number of Copland (John, James, William) families were shown living near the Robert Bailey family. Perhaps, Elizabeth "Betsy" Copeland, desends from one of these Copland families.

1830 CENSUS DATA: The 1830 census data of Campbell Co., Ga, show Robert S. Baley (Bailey) as head of household. Males listed 5-10=1; 10-15=1; 15-20-1; 50-60=1. Females listed 10-15=1;15-20=1; 50-60=1.

1840 CENSUS DATA: The 1840 census data of Carroll Co., Ga, 729th District, show Robert S. Bailey as head of household. Males listed 20-30=1; 60-70=1. Females listed 5-10=1; 60-70=1. Son, John B. Bailey, and son-in-law, George Aderhold, shown living in next houses on either side of Robert S. Bailey.

1850 CENSUS DATA: The 1850 census data of Carroll Co., Ga., 11th Division, p. 43, shows R. S. Bailey as head of household, age 72, a farmer, and real estate valued at $2500, born SC. Living with R. S. is Betsy his wife, age 72, born SC and Hezekiah Archer, age 16, born SC. Also, living one house away is his son, John B. Bailey, and his family. Hezekiah Archer was R. S. & Elizabeth "Betsy" Copland Bailey's grandson, a child of Noah Archer and their daughter, Hannah Bailey Archer.

CARROLL COUNTY, GEORGIA LAND INVOLVEMENT & TRANSACTIONS BY ROBERT S. BAILEY

1.Deed Book A, p. 302, 3 October 1827. 202 1/2 acres drawn by ROBERT S. BAILEY; Attested by Arthur Alexander & Jacob Williams, Recorded 24 July 1830.

2.Deed Book B, p. 220, 23 October 1832. Jiles S. Boggess to James Long, Land Lot #197, 5th dist. Carroll, 202 1/2 acres sold to satisfy a suit in the Justice Court Madison County, James Long vs Simon Cardwell. Attested by William L. Parr & ROBERT S. BAILEY.

3.Deed Book B, p. 412, 25 December 1833. James Polk, Madison County to ROBERT S. BAILEY, Carroll County. $450.00 Land lot #61, 5th dist. Carroll. 202 1/2 acres drawn by James Polk. Attested by A. H. Perrian, Charles Hulsey, J.P. 16 Dec 1834.

4.Deed Book C, p. 128, 14 March 1837. William Hoskins, to the name of sarah Barret to ROBERT S. BAILEY. $150. Land lot #199, 5th dist. Carroll County. Attested by Martin Carter, W. Story, J.P.; 17 April 1837.

5.Deed Book D, p. 67, 30 January 1837. Moses Wallers, Franklin County to John B. Bailey. $50. Land lot # 66, 5th dist. Carroll County. 202 1/2 acres. Attested by John Mehaffey & ROBERT S. BAILEY.

6.Deed Book D, p. 190, 28 November 1840. John R. Bays, Nathaniel Bays, Solomon Stisher to Jesse Boon and Wm. R. Boon, $1200. Land lot # 35, 5th dist. Carroll County. Attested by ROBERT S. BAILEY, Joseph Barber. 5 September 1841.

7.Deed Book E, p. 55, 20 March 1843. ROBERT S. BAILEY to Hannah Archer, his daughter, Coweta County. (Widow of Noah Archer). Better maintenance and support of Hannah Archer and her minor orphans. Land lot # 199, 5th dist. Carroll County. Attested by Richd M. Hackney, Andm J. Berry, J.I.C. 15 January 1844.

8.Deed Book F, p. 242, 15 September 1848. Henry Phillips, Walton County to ROBERT S. BAILEY, Carroll County. $150. Land lot # 29, 5th dist. Carroll County. 202 1/2 acres. Attested by C. B. Head, R. W. McKee J.P. 24 April 1849.

9. Deed Book F, p. 557, 29 October 1850. B. H. Moultin, Bibb County to ROBERT S. BAILEY. $100. North half land lot # 36, 5th dist. Carroll County. Attested by John Long, J. C. Benson, J.I.C. 24 August 1851.

10Deed Book F, p. 739, 24 July 1851. ROBERT S. BAILEY to Francis Marion Bailey. $62.50. South half land lot #29, 5th dist. Carroll County. 101 1/2 acres. Attested by George Kizer. R. W. McKee, A. J. Boggess, J.I.C. 7 February 1852.

CARROLL COUNTY RECORDS FOR ROBERT S. BAILEY 1.1835 Grand Jurors of the Inferior Court of Carroll County, Ga. Inferior Court Minutes, pp 126-127. Robert S. Bailey's is named on the jurors list.
_______________________________________________________________________________

NOTE: The following information and thoughts provided by John Mallory Land, McKinney, TX.

The exact date Robert S. Bailey and family moved from Anderson, SC to Georgia is not known at this time; however, a newspaper article from the Anderson Intelligencer in 1828 may provide some information. The article was found in a compilation of newspaper articles Brent H. Holcomb, "Marriage and Death Notices from Pendleton SC Intellengencer, 1807-1851". October 1, 1828 Issue, "Married on the 23 by Rev. Sanford Vandiver, Mr. Noah Archer of Andersonvillage to Miss Hannah Bailey, daughter of Mr. Robert S. Bailey."

Page 29 I have the following in my files, from notes made by Martha P. (ADERHOLD) SPARKS (b. ca. 1845 Carroll Co, GA), daughter of George W. & Nancy Elizabeth (BAILEY) ADERHOLD. She resided at Tyus, Carroll Co, GA.

She states in part:"Father's father [sic - should read "My father"] married Elizabeth BAILEY. Her father [Robert S. BAILEY] moved from SC near Anderson[,] then they [moved] to Carroll [sic] County Georgia then to Carroll County[.] her father's home and farm was on Snakes Creek[;] he lived and died there and was buried at the grave yard on the place. His wife was Elizabeth COPLAND and her people come from Ireland. Her husband was Inglish[.] Billy COPLAND was her Cousin[;] he was a first cousin, [while] I'm a third cousin.

M.P.S."If I have a copy of the original notes, I cannot put my hands it right now, so I am working from a typed transcription a cousin made, and I can't be sure whether or not any of the errors here are the result of the transcription. (Punctuation/comments in brackets are my additions.) I would love to know the correct name of the Georgia county where the Robert S. BAILEY family resided prior to moving to Carroll Co., but the original may contain the same redundancy as the transcription. At any rate, this account places the family near Anderson in SC prior to moving into Georgia. Based on birthplace data from various censuses (which as you know are not entirely reliable), it seems that Robert S. & Betsy (COPLAND) BAILEY (both ca. 1778) and all of their children (the last about 1819) were born in SC. I would expect to find the family on the 1820 federal census of SC. How much longer they remained there is a matter of speculation at this point. It is not clear whether Robert and Betsy's children who married and had children while still in SC moved to GA at the same time as the rest of the family. ________________________________________________________________________________

WILL OF ROBERT S. BAILEY

NOTE: The following transcription and compiler notes provided by Mr. John Mallory Land, McKinney, TX. From Carroll Co, GA, Annual Returns, Book B (1841-53), pp. 303-04: In the name of God Amen. I Robert S. BAILEY of the County of Carroll in the State of Georgia being weak in body but of sound mind and memory blessed be God for his mercies do make and ordain this my last will and testament in the words following that is to say.

1st I gave my soul to God who gave it and my body to the [sic] to be buried in a decent manner at the discretion of my Executors.

2nd I wish my just debts and funeral expences [sic] to be paid out of my estate.

3rd I gave and bequeath to my beloved wife Betsy BAILEY all my household and Kitchen furniture, all my horses cattle and hogs and stock of every kind also all my lands during her life and at her death that it b_ all sold and for the love I have for Syrena COPELAND I gave and bequeath her one hundred dollars out of my property when distribution is made, the balance to be equally divided amongst the following heirs: William C. BAILEY, Sarah BAILEY, Hannah H. BAILEY, John M. DALE, to Harmon GABLE twenty dollars and to my grand son William GABLE so as to make him equal with the other heirs including the twenty dollars to his father, Charles G. BAILEY, John B. BAILEY, Nancy E. BAILEY, & Francis M. BAILEY, and I do constitute and appoint my beloved son Frances M. BAILEY and my friend John M. DALE [p.304] my Executors hereby revoking and disanulling all former wills ratifying and confirming this as my last will and testament.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and [affixed my] seal this 16th day of January 1852 eighteen hundred and fifty two.

Signed sealed and acknowledged in presence of Robert S. BAILEY {L.S.} William W. DRIVER Jas. H. LASSITTER R. W. McKEE Georgia }We John M. DALE & Francis M. BAILEY do solemnly swear that this writing Carroll County }contains the true last will of the within named Robert S. BAILEY deceased so fare [sic] as we know or believe, and that we will well and truly execute the same by paying first the debts and then the legacies contained in said Will so fare [sic] as his goods and chattels will thereto extend and the law charge us and that we will make a true and perfect inventory of all such goods and chattels so help us God. John M. DALE [L.S.] Wm. A. HENDON Ordy.F. M. BAILEY [L.S.] Georgia }We Wm. W. DRIVER James H. LASSETTER and Richard W. McKEE do solemnly swear that we and each of us saw Robert S. BAILEY sign seal and publish and declare the within writing to be his last Will and testament and at the time of signing thereof he was of sound mind and disposing mind and memory that he did it freely and without any compulsion to the best of our knowledge and belief and that we signed it in the presence of the testator at his request. Sworn to and subscribed before William W. DRIVER [L.S.] me this 7th February 1852 Jas. H. LASSETTER [L.S.] Wm. A. HENDON,R. W. McKEE [L.S.] Ordy. Recorded April 8th 1852 Wm. A. HENDON Ordy.

[Compiler's notes: the widow Betsy BAILEY was nee COP(E)LAND. The kinship of Syrena (Serena) COPELAND is not known at this time. Deeds in which heirs sold their interest in the land bequeathed in this will (lots 61, 36 and 29 in the Fifth Land District in Carroll Co, GA) indicate that there were nine shares. These equal shares went to (in the order in which they appear in the will; based on available information, the nine children or their survivors are probably named in chronological birth order and probably all b. in SC.

NOTE: Complier notes provided by John Mallory Land, McKinney, TX. William C. BAILEY (b. 1800's?) Sarah BAILEY (b. ca. 1806, m. bef. 1823 SC? Robert McCALISTER/McCOLLISTER) Hannah H. BAILEY (b. ca. 1808, m. bef. 1834 SC? Noah ARCHER, was dead by MAR 1843) John M. DALE (b. 1807) - wife Mary Jane said to be b. 1809 William GABLE (b. 1836) - less $20 paid to his father Harmon GABLE (b. ca. 1812) - wife Jane probably b. 1810's (m. 1835 Carroll Co, GA) Charles G. BAILEY (b. ca. 1812?), m. Nancy UNKNOWN John B. BAILEY (b. ca. 1814, m. bef. 1835 Sarah KNIGHT) Nancy E[lizabeth] BAILEY (b. ca. 1817, m. 1837 Carroll Co, GA to George W. ADERHOLD) Francis M[arion] BAILEY (b. ca. 1819, m. 1840 Carroll Co, GA Lucinda Ann "Lucy" DUKE)

Note that, although all three daughters named are known to have been married before the will was made, they are listed by their maiden names. Hannah's husband Noah ARCHER had died before MAR 1843, but Sarah's and Nancy Elizabeth's were still living. John Messer DALE had m. 1829 in Gwinnett Co, GA to Mary Jane BAILEY (AUG 1809 - JUL 1849). In the will, Robert BAILEY calls John M. DALE his friend - which indeed may have been the case - but he could not refer to him as his son-in-law because DALE had remarried. It is probable that Harmon GABLE's wife Jane BAILEY, whom he m. 1835 in Carroll Co, GA, was also deceased, as he is apparently the Harmon GABLE who m. 1842 in Carroll Co, GA, to Louisa WEEMS. This is probably the same woman as his wife Eliza on the 1850 census of Carroll Co. William GABLE is listed as the only heir of Jane evidently because he was the only (surviving) child she bore. According to a deed in Book H, p. 476, William GABLE, Robert's grandson, sold his interest in lots 61, 36, and 29 in the Fifth Land District to John M. DALE (instrument dated 11 JUL 1857 and filed with the Carroll Co, GA, Superior Court on 12 JUL 1857). I have not yet obtained a copy of this document. Robert and his wife (d. 1850's?) are probably both buried with other family members in the BAILEY family plot, which was located near the residence on the above referenced property.

END OF JOHN LAND NOTES 
BAILEY, Robert S (I3371)
 
440 BIOGRAPHY: Name: Hudson Jennings ,
Enlistment Date: 22 August 1862
Distinguished Service: DISTINGUISHED SERVICE
Side Served: Union
State Served: New York
Unit Numbers: 1401 1401
Service Record: Enlisted as a Private on 22 August 1862 at the age of 22 Enlisted in Company K, 137th Infantry Regiment New York on 27 August 1862. Promoted to Full Corporal on 24 April 1863 Promoted to Full Sergeant on 31 August 1863 Wounded on 29 October 1863 at Wauhatchie, TN Died of wounds Company K, 137th Infantry Regiment New York on 27 November 1863 in Nashville, TN
Regimental History NEW YORK ONE HUNDRED AND THIRTY-SEVENTH INFANTRY (Three Years) One Hundred and Thirty-seventh Infantry.-Cols., David Ireland, Koert S. Van Voorhes; Lieut.-Cols., Koert S. Van Voorhes, Milo B. Eldridge; Majs., Wetsell Willoughby, Milo B. Eldridge, Frederick A. Stoddard. This regiment, recruited in the counties of Tompkins, Tioga and Broome-the 24th senatorial district-was organized at Binghamton, and was there mustered into the U. S. service for three years on Sept. 25-26, 1862. It left on the 27th 1,007 strong, for Harper's Ferry, and was there assigned to the 3d brigade, 2nd (Geary's) division,-the "White Star" division-12th corps, to which it was attached throughout the whole period of its active service.

The list of important battles in which the regiment took part includes Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Wauhatchie, Missionary ridge, Lookout mountain, Ringgold, Rocky Face ridge, Resaca, Cassville, Lost mountain, Kennesaw mountain, Peachtree creek, the siege of Atlanta, and numerous minor actions on the march to the sea and in the campaign of the Carolinas.

Col. W. F. Fox, in his account of this regiment, says: "It won special honors at Gettysburg, then in Greene's brigade, which, alone and unassisted, held Culp's hill during a critical period of that battle against a desperate attack of vastly superior force. The casualties in the 137th at Gettysburg exceeded those of any other regiment in the corps, amounting to 40 killed, 87 wounded and 10 missing. The gallant defense of Culp's hill by Greene's brigade, and the terrible execution inflicted by its musketry on the assaulting column of the enemy, form one of the most noteworthy incidents of the war. The 12th corps left Virginia in Sept., 1863, and went to Tennessee, joining Grant's army at Chattanooga. In the month following their arrival the regiment was engaged in the midnight battle at Wauhatchie, where it lost 15 killed and 75 wounded; and, a few weeks later, fought with Hooker at Lookout mountain in the famous 'battle above the clouds;' casualties in that battle, 6 killed and 32 wounded. In April, 1864, the corps number was changed to the 20th, Gen. Hooker being placed in command. A large accession was received from the 11th corps, but Col. Ireland and Gen. Geary retained their respective commands. The 137th shared in all the marches and battles of the Atlanta campaign, and then marched with Sherman to the sea." Col. Ireland succumbed to disease at Atlanta, and Col. Van Voorhes succeeded to the command. When the campaign of the Carolinas closed with the surrender of Johnston, the regiment marched with the corps to Washington, where it participated in the grand review and was mustered out near Bladensburgh, Md., June 9, 1865. The total enrollment of the regiment was 1,111, of whom 6 officers and 121 men, were killed and mortally wounded-11.4 per cent. of the enrollment; 4 officers and 167 men died of disease, accidents, and all other causes, a total of 294. The total number of killed and wounded was 490. Source: The Union Army, Vol. 2, p. 148 NEW YORK ONE HUNDRED AND THIRTY-SEVENTH REGIMENT OF INFANTRY. (Three Years) Colonel David Ireland received authority, August 31, 1862, to recruit this regiment; it was organized at Binghamton, and there mustered in the service of the United States for three years September 25 and 26, 1862. In December, 1864, a company of recruits, mustered in for one year, joined the regiment at Savannah, Ga., and became Company L. June 8, 1865, the men not to be mustered out with the regiment were transferred to the 102d Infantry. The companies were recruited principally: A at Binghamton and Sanford; B at Binghamton, Chenango, Conklin, Kirkwood, Richford, Union and Windsor; C at Owego; D at Ithaca; E at Binghamton, Chenango, Lisle, Maine, Triangle, Union and Whitney's Point; F at Binghamton, Colesville, Chenango, Conklin, Kirkwood, Port Crane, Sanford and Windsor; G at Berkshire, Richford, Newark Valley, Caroline, Groton and Candor; H at Spencer, Candor, Barton and Owego; I at Ulysses, Newfield and Ithaca; K at Groton, Danby and Caroline; and L at Elmira. The regiment left the State September 27, 1862; it served in the 3d Brigade, 2d Division, 12th Corps, from September 30, 1862; in the 3d Brigade, 2d Division, 20th Corps, from April, 1864; and it was honorably discharged and mustered out, under Col. Koert S. Van Voorhees, June 9, 1865, near Bladensburg, Md. Source: Phisterer, p. 3,593 Battles Fought Fought on 17 September 1862 at Antietam, MD . Fought on 24 November 1862 at Bolivar, VA. Fought on 02 May 1863 at Chancellorsville, VA . Fought on 03 May 1863 at Chancellorsville, VA . Fought on 02 July 1863 at Gettysburg, PA . Fought on 03 July 1863 at Gettysburg, PA . Fought on 01 August 1863. Fought on 28 October 1863 at Wauhatchie, TN . Fought on 29 October 1863 at Wauhatchie, TN . Fought on 24 November 1863 at Lookout Mountain, TN. Fought on 26 November 1863 at Ringgold, GA. Fought on 27 November 1863 at Ringgold, GA . Fought on 28 November 1863 at Ringgold, GA. Fought on 15 May 1864 at Resaca, GA . Fought on 25 May 1864 at Dallas, GA . Fought on 25 May 1864 at New Hope Church, GA . Fought on 31 May 1864 at Dallas, GA . Fought on 01 June 1864 at Dallas, GA . Fought on 15 June 1864 at Pine Knob, GA. Fought on 16 June 1864 at Pine Knob, GA. Fought on 17 June 1864 at Nose's Creek, GA. Fought on 17 June 1864 at Pine Knob, GA. Fought on 21 June 1864 at Marietta, GA . Fought on 22 June 1864 at Culp's Farm, GA. Fought on 22 June 1864 at Marietta, GA . Fought on 22 June 1864 at Pine Knob, GA. Fought on 27 June 1864 at Marietta, GA . Fought on 29 June 1864 at Kenesaw Mountain, GA . Fought on 20 July 1864 at Atlanta, GA . Fought on 20 July 1864 at Peach Tree Creek, GA . Fought on 07 August 1864 at Resaca, GA. Fought on 30 August 1864 at Atlanta, GA . Fought on 27 November 1864 at Davisboro, GA. Fought on 28 November 1864 at Davidsboro, GA. Fought on 28 November 1864 at Davis' Farm, VA. Fought on 11 December 1864 at Savannah, GA . Fought on 13 December 1864 at Savannah, GA . Fought on 14 December 1864 at Savannah, GA . Fought on 20 December 1864 at Savannah, GA . Fought on 24 March 1865 at Goldsboro, NC. Fought on 25 March 1865 at Goldsboro, NC. Fought on 14 April 1865. Fought on 14 April 1865 at Raleigh, NC. 
JENNINGS, Hudson (I377)
 
441 Birthdate: Tombstone gives year 1896. DOUGHTY, Finnis Kissiar (I9523)
 
442 Bishop of Uzès in 507 (ca 490 – 538, 551 or October 11, 553), Feast Day October 11  Firminus Bishop (I40852)
 
443 Blanche Mowbray (d. 21 July 1409), who was contracted to marry Edward de Montagu (d. before February 1359), son and heir apparent of Edward de Montagu, 1st Baron Montagu (died 3 July 1461), by Alice of Norfolk, daughter and heiress of Thomas of Brotherton; however the marriage did not take place. She married firstly, by papal dispensation dated 21 March 1349, John de Segrave (d. before 1 April 1353), son and heir apparent of John Segrave, 4th Baron Segrave by Margaret, Duchess of Norfolk, daughter and heiress of Thomas of Brotherton; secondly, as his second wife, Sir Robert Bertam (d.1363); thirdly, before 5 June 1372, Thomas de Poynings, 2nd Baron Poynings (d. before 25 June 1375), son and heir of Michael de Poynings, 1st Baron Poynings; fourthly, before 21 March 1378, Sir John de Worth (d. before 1 June 1391); and fifthly, before 5 November 1394, Sir John Wiltshire. She had no issue by any of her husbands DE MOWBRAY, Blanche (I672075454)
 
444 Bob worked for years with the Singer Sewing Maching Co. Later, he andAunt Clara owned the Necchi Sewing store in Fon du Lac, WI. Uncle Bobdied of Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS). STANLEY, John Robert , Sr. (I10260)
 
445 Bogo de Clare (21 July 1248 - October 1294) was the third son of Richard de Clare (1222?1262), 5th Earl of Hertford, 6th Earl of Gloucester. He held multiple clerical livings, without apparently, having been ordained priest. DE CLARE, Bogo (I672075669)
 
446 Bondsman William Lawrence.Source thinks her last name was Barbee. BASBURY, Martha ( Basberry)( Basbey) (I9591)
 
447 Book called My Persons Family by Dr. George Walker PERSONS, John (I2698)
 
448 Born about 1778 in South Carolina. Married, probably between 1800 and 1806 in South Carolina, to Eliabeth "Betsey" COPLAND. The BAILEYS were originally English and the COPLANDS, Irish.

Robert owned land in Carroll County, Georgia, by October 3, 1827, when a tract of land he owned was sold in a sheriff's sale; they probably had moved to Georgia by 1824, as it seems this lot was drawn in the 1827 Georgia Land Lottery.

Robert evidently heads a household on the 1830 census of Campbell County, Georgia (this county is now defunct, but was east of and adjacent to Carroll County). He heads a household on the 1840 census of General Militia District #729 in Carroll County, Georgia.

Heads a household in the Eleventh District of Carroll County, Georgia, in 1850; he was farming and his holdings were valued at $2500. With him are his wife and a grandson, Hezekiah ARCHER, aged 16 years. Died between January 16, 1852, when his Last Will and Testament was made, and February 7, 1852, when this LWT was proved in the Carroll County Court of Ordinary. Burial in the family grave yard on the old Bailey place inferred - Dr. Joseph Robertson HOOD mentions this family burying ground in a letter, and Robert's grandson, Robert S. ADERHOLD (who was evidently named for him), was buried there in 1862.  
BAILEY, Robert S (I3371)
 
449 Born about 1778 in South Carolina. Married, probably between 1800 and 1806 in South Carolina, to Robert S. BAILEY. They evidently had moved to Georgia by 1824 and were residing in Carroll County, Georgia, by October 3, 1827. Mother of at least nine children.

According to an account by Dr. Joseph Robertson HOOD, in a letter to one of his grandchildren: as of 1855, the widowed Mrs. Betsy (COPLAND) BAILEY resides on the "large, well-improved and very fine farm on Snake's Creek in Carroll Co, GA," including a large and extra-fine body of bottom land, which her husband has left her. The public road from Carrollton to Palmetto runs through this farm, and family members are buried in a graveyard near the residence. [Much of this bottom land is now evidently under a lake formed by damming Snake's Creek.] Mrs. BAILEY's son-in-law George W. ADERHOLD resides on the farm and will attend to her business for the remainder of her life [Betsey is apparently deceased by March 3, 1860, when George W. & Nancy Elizabeth (BAILEY) ADERHOLD sell her interest in land lots 61, 36, and 29 in the Fifth Land District in Carroll Co, GA, which N. Elizabeth had inherited]. 
COPELAND, Elizabeth "Betsy" (I3372)
 
450 Born at 4am

Age 7, Summershade, Metcalfe, KY, 1920 census.Age 17, Clarks Hill, Lauramie, Tippecanoe, IN, 1930 census.Mertie & Bertie were fraternal twins.Marriage, Book M-44, p 551, Tippecanoe, IN. 
COOKSEY, Myrtie Bell (I9656)
 
451 Born ca. 1829 in SC or Carroll County, Georgia. Daughter of Robert & Sarah (BAILEY) McCALISTER, who moved their family from Carroll County, Georgia, to Columbus, GA, about 1849. Married first 12 JUN 1857 in Muscogee County, Georgia, to Thomas Jess SUMMERSGILL. Married second 21 JUL 1871 in Muscogee County, Georgia, to William R. MARTIN (Sr.), widower of her sister Jane. Homemaker and mother of eight children. Mary died in Phenix City, which at that time was in Lee County. Burial place of her first husband, who died 08 AUG 1865 in Columbus, GA, is presently not known.

Siblings:

Syrena Emaline (McCOLLISTER) DAVIS

Jane (McCOLLISTER) MARTIN

Thomas McCOLLISTER

William McCOLLISTER

Aunt (sister of Sarah (BAILEY) McALISTER):

Nancy Elizabeth (BAILEY) ADERHOLD

First husband Thomas Jess SUMMERSGILL's brother:

James SUMMERSGILL


Family links:
Parents:
Robert McColister (1797 - 1857)
Sarah Bailey McColister (1806 - 1858)

Spouse:
William R. Martin (1828 - 1884)

Children:
John Summersgill (1852 - 1923)*
James W. Summersgill (1854 - 1939)*
William Henry Summersgill (1856 - 1917)*

Siblings:
Sophronia McAlister Hewson (____ - 1890)*
Syrena Emaline McCollister Davis (____ - 1907)*
Andrew Jackson McColister (1825 - 1885)*
Mary McCollister Summersgill Martin (1829 - 1895)
Thomas McCollister (1832 - 1927)*
Jane McCollister Martin (1833 - 1870)*
William McCollister (1840 - 1907)* 
MCCOLISTER, Mary (I11273)
 
452 Born in Bibb, Georgia, USA on 1832 to Jonathan Wilder and Margaret Roberts. Joseph married Caroline E Gregory.  WILDER, Joseph (I672075493)
 
453 Born in Georgia, USA on 1822 to Jonathan Wilder and Margaret Roberts. William married Martha Ann Hill. William married Mary Daniel Kerby and had 9 children. He passed away on 7 Dec 1899 in Macon, Noxubee, Mississippi, USA.

Joseph H Wilder1868-1937
Martha Catherine Wilder1853-1889
William S Wilder
John Wesley Wilder1845-1927
Mary J Wilder1847-1912
Fannie Elizabeth Wilder1849-1910
Thomas E Wilder1852-1935
Nancy S Wilder1855-1914
Sallie I Wilder1876-1932

 
WILDER, William (I672075491)
 
454 born in Llewenni, Near Denbigh, Wales SALUSBURY, Ralph (I671953258)
 
455 Brother of Reginald Fitz-Urse, one of the 4 knights who murdered Thomas a Becket. The name "Fitz-Urse" is French or Norman, "Fitz" meaning "son", "Urse" meaning "bear". The date of Richard's birth is not known but he was an adult in the year 1170 when his brother, Reginald Fitz-Urse was a Knight at the Court of King Henry II of England. The King was in Normandy with his Court when he heard of more trouble being caused him by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Becket. Henry, in his outrage, asked, "Won't anyone rid me of this troublesome Priest?"

LAND HELD
Manor of GAYNES, (Upminster, Essex)
1200 Richard FitzUrse by inheritance 1200 - 1215 His son Reynold Fiturse, then Reynold's daughter Maud, then to Maud's son William de Curtenay 1215: Viel Engayne and Roger Gernet, jointly, inheriting via Richard FitzUrse's daughters.

1216: part of the manor was disputed between William de Cauntelo (perhaps connected with the civil war that was underway in England at the time). 1218: Ada, widow of de Curtenay had dower in the manor, and in 1221 Viel Engayne bought out her interest. 1223: Viel Engayne also bought out Roger Gernet and de Cauntelo, thus becoming the outright Lord of the manor. 1248: John and Henry Engayne inherit from their father Viel. 1297: John Engayne (later Lord Engayne) inherits from his father of the same name, and enfeoffs Simon de Havering for 10 years. 
FITZURSE, RICHARD (I13605)
 
456 Brothers Thomas and John Newsom married sisters Elizabeth and Sarah Crawford, daughters of Robert Crawford and Elizabeth Carter, in that order.
Children of Thomas Newsom and Elizabeth Crawford are:
35 i. William11 Newsom, born Abt. 1706 in Surry County, Virginia; died 1736.
36 ii. Thomas Newsom, born 1708 in Surry County, Virginia; died 1785 in Sussex County, Virginia. He married (1) Tanpenes Holt Abt. 1732 He married (2) Alice Stagg February 25, 1758 in Sussex County, Virginia.
37 iii. Moses Newsom, born Abt. 1709 in Surry County, Virginia.
+ 38 iv. Sampson Newsom, born 1711 in Surry County, Virginia; died 1779 in Southampton County, Virginia.
39 v. Solomon Newsom, born Abt. 1713 in Isle of Wight County, Virginia; died 1795 in Wilkes County, Georgia. He married Martha Mathews Abt. 1741 in Southampton County, Virginia.
40 vi. Amos Newsom, born 1716 in Isle of Wight County, Virginia; died in North Carolina. He married Agnes ?
+ 41 vii. Nathan Newsom, born Abt. 1717 in Isle of Wight County, Virginia; died 1762 in Southampton County, Virginia.
42 viii. Benjamin Newsom, born Abt. 1718 in Isle of Wight County, Virginia; died 1799 in Southampton County, Virginia.
43 ix. Sarah Newsom, born Abt. 1720 in Isle of Wight County, Virginia; died 1784 in Sussex County, Virginia. She married Thomas Barham Abt. 1740 in Sussex County, Virginia
44 x. Ann Newsom, born Abt. 1724 in Isle of Wight County, Virginia; died Aft. 1755 in Sussex County, Virginia. She married Thomas Holt in Surry County, Virginia.
45 xi. Jacob Newsom, born Abt. 1727 in Isle of Wight County, Virginia; died 1778 in Southampton County, Virginia. He married Tabitha Gilliam
46 xii. David Newsom, born Abt. 1730 in Isle of Wight County, Virginia; died July 14, 1768 in Southampton County, Virginia. He married Mary Harwood Barham Abt. 1755 in Southampton County, Virginia 
NEWSOM, Thomas (I282)
 
457 Brought to Maryland in the ship Unity of the Isle of Wight by Capt Thomas Cornwaleys 11/28/1637.

 
MOORMAN, Alice (I671953424)
 
458 Burial Macon Memorial Park Macon, Bibb County, Georgia, USA
Plot Section M Lot 217B Grave 1
Memorial ID 145418936  
BOSTICK, Wade Huntsman (I13496)
 
459 Burial Macon Memorial Park Macon, Bibb County, Georgia, USA
Plot Section M Lot 217B Grave 2
Memorial ID 145418672  
JOHNSON, Clara Maurine (I13)
 
460 Burial Sunset Cemetery Shelby, Cleveland County, North Carolina, USA
Plot Shamrock Section
Memorial ID 45772966  
BOSTICK, Wade Dobbins (I13745)
 
461 BURIAL: Bispham is located on the Irish Sea coast of Lancashire, England, a few miles north of present day Blackpool. NEWSOM, Robert (I1527)
 
462 BURIAL: Danby Rural Cemetery
Also known as Curtis Cemetery; Was once known as Beers Cemetery
Town of Danby, Tompkins County, NY Located on Curtis Road Cemetery is active; records are complete to the 1980s, plus updates sent in by volunteers.
Dr. Lewis Beers came to the Danby area in 1797. He owned the first framed house in the town located on Curtis Road. The family Cemetery some distance from the house, is now the Danby Rural Cemetery. In the early days a path lined with daffadils connected the house and "burying ground." Each spring still finds many of golden blooms threading a trail of color through the grass. (Written by Lois O'Connor in CROSSROADS COMMENT 1949)

BURIAL: DANBY RURAL CEMETERY ASSOCIATION was incorporated under the general law, July 1, 1871. The land was donated for the purpose by E. L. B. Curtis. Trustees, Charles B. Curtis, Luther G. Genung ,Levi C. Beers, E. L. B. Curtis,; the latter was the first president; the first secretary was G. F. Nourse. Present officers: E. L. B. Curtis, President; Levi L. Beers, Secretary, Lucian B. Beers, G. McArthur, Luther Roper, Trustees. The grounds contain about an acre, well laid out and neatly kept.

BURIAL: #72 FRANCES Frances JENNINGS July 1, 1835 - March 30, 1896
#73 MOTHER Laura C. JENNINGS Jan. 7, 1813 - March 18, 1859
#74 FATHER Lemuel JENNINGS Sept. 27, 1808 - March 8, 1884  
Laura C (I239)
 
463 BURIAL: Danby Rural Cemetery
Also known as Curtis Cemetery; Was once known as Beers Cemetery
Town of Danby, Tompkins County, NY Located on Curtis Road Cemetery is active; records are complete to the 1980s, plus updates sent in by volunteers.
Dr. Lewis Beers came to the Danby area in 1797. He owned the first framed house in the town located on Curtis Road. The family Cemetery some distance from the house, is now the Danby Rural Cemetery. In the early days a path lined with daffadils connected the house and "burying ground." Each spring still finds many of golden blooms threading a trail of color through the grass. (Written by Lois O'Connor in CROSSROADS COMMENT 1949)

BURIAL: DANBY RURAL CEMETERY ASSOCIATION was incorporated under the general law, July 1, 1871. The land was donated for the purpose by E. L. B. Curtis. Trustees, Charles B. Curtis, Luther G. Genung ,Levi C. Beers, E. L. B. Curtis,; the latter was the first president; the first secretary was G. F. Nourse. Present officers: E. L. B. Curtis, President; Levi L. Beers, Secretary, Lucian B. Beers, G. McArthur, Luther Roper, Trustees. The grounds contain about an acre, well laid out and neatly kept.

#72 FRANCES Frances JENNINGS July 1, 1835 - March 30, 1896
#73 MOTHER Laura C. JENNINGS Jan. 7, 1813 - March 18, 1859
#74 FATHER Lemuel JENNINGS Sept. 27, 1808 - March 8, 1884 
JENNINGS, Frances E (I616)
 
464 BURIAL: Danby Rural Cemetery
Also known as Curtis Cemetery; Was once known as Beers Cemetery
Town of Danby, Tompkins County, NY Located on Curtis Road Cemetery is active; records are complete to the 1980s, plus updates sent in by volunteers.
Dr. Lewis Beers came to the Danby area in 1797. He owned the first framed house in the town located on Curtis Road. The family Cemetery some distance from the house, is now the Danby Rural Cemetery. In the early days a path lined with daffadils connected the house and "burying ground." Each spring still finds many of golden blooms threading a trail of color through the grass. (Written by Lois O'Connor in CROSSROADS COMMENT 1949)

BURIAL: DANBY RURAL CEMETERY ASSOCIATION was incorporated under the general law, July 1, 1871. The land was donated for the purpose by E. L. B. Curtis. Trustees, Charles B. Curtis, Luther G. Genung ,Levi C. Beers, E. L. B. Curtis,; the latter was the first president; the first secretary was G. F. Nourse. Present officers: E. L. B. Curtis, President; Levi L. Beers, Secretary, Lucian B. Beers, G. McArthur, Luther Roper, Trustees. The grounds contain about an acre, well laid out and neatly kept.

BURIAL: #72 FRANCES Frances JENNINGS July 1, 1835 - March 30, 1896
#73 MOTHER Laura C. JENNINGS Jan. 7, 1813 - March 18, 1859
#74 FATHER Lemuel JENNINGS Sept. 27, 1808 - March 8, 1884  
JENNINGS, Lemuel (I2285)
 
465 Buried at Boiling Springs Cemetary, Putnam HILL, Nannie Pearl (I9387)
 
466 Buried at IOOF Cemetery FRY, Mary R. (I833)
 
467 Buried at IOOF Cemetery FRY, Rufus D. (I836)
 
468 Buried at IOOF Cemetry FRY, Samuel E (I840)
 
469 Buried at IOOF Cenetery, Denton,Tx FRY, Louis Leander "Jack" (I834)
 
470 Buried at Oak Grove Cemetery Greene Co.,Tn MALONE, Bessie Leila (I152)
 
471 Buried at Old Alton Cemetary in Denton, Co. Tx FRY, Vannie Lemon (I801)
 
472 Buried at Old Alton Cemetery in Denton Co. Tx FRY, Roy (I874)
 
473 buried beside wife WEISS, Charles Peter (I40741)
 
474 Buried in Antellope (Jack), Tx FRY, Jesse Franklin. (I664)
 
475 Buried in Clinton Cemetery Dec 8 1848 MCMULLAN, William Marion (I4635)
 
476 Buried in the field behind Friendship Baptist Church near Macon, MO THOMPSON, Louisa Ann (I10269)
 
477 buried in the Jennings family burial grounds, thought to be what is now known as the Danby Presbyterian Cemetery, Danby, NY.  JENNINGS, Lemuel (I3084)
 
478 Buried in The Terraces section on Cemetery Ridge in Rose Hill Cemetery CHERRY, Elijah Dean (I41389)
 
479 By Amy Holmes November 03, 2005
This is what I have on Robert Jesse Hanson.

Born about 1728 in Stafford County, VA.

Married Margaret Patrick (1728-1777) in 1749 in Prince William County, VA.

Died 1802 in Fauquier County, VA.

I am also descended from his son, Jesse (1767-1852)- his son, Jesse II (1806-1869)- his son, George Washington Hanson (1828-1863)- his son, William Belton Hanson (1857-?)- his daughter, Eliza Jane Hanson (1885-1970, my grandmother).If anyone has any info on Robert Jesse Hanson's parents (or Margaret Patrick's parents), I am very curious. 
PATRICK, Margaret "Peggy" (I7513)
 
480 By Dr. Ivy Family F2824
 
481 By Rev. Wm. H. LaPrade Family F2866
 
482 Caldonia's brother, Richard Bearden, married Reuben Crawford Hanson's sister, Nancy. BEARDEN, Caldonia (I7408)
 
483 Called Elizabeth. Born about 1818 in Georgia. Daughter of Robert S. & Betsy (COPELAND) BAILEY. Married September 24, 1837, in Carroll County, Georgia, to George W. ADERHOLD, son of John George & Margaret (HASSELBERGER) ADERHOLD. Homemaker and mother of at least seven children: Serena Adeline ADERHOLD (m. William Walter "Buck" RICHARDS, Sr., d. bef. 1884); Robert S. ADERHOLD (d. 1862); Luna Jackson ADERHOLD (m. Ada Jane HOOD, d. 1893); Martha P. ADERHOLD (twin, m. Moses Andrew Jackson SPARKS, d. 1923); Mary ADERHOLD (twin); Josephus Wood ADERHOLD (b. ca. 1854, disabled). Elizabeth's burial at the Bailey Cemetery is speculative but likely: her parents and a son who died in 1862 are buried there, and she was living in the same vicinity when she died in the 1860s; also, in 1870, her widower George W. ADERHOLD is living next door to Samuel P. & Sarah WILSON, who are buried at Sparks Cemetery.

 
BAILEY, Nancy Elizabeth (I40732)
 
484 Called Emaline. Born ca. 1827. Daughter of Robert & Sarah (BAILEY) McALISTER. Married September 19, 1850, in Carroll County, Georgia, to Edley Jackson DAVIS. Heads a household was a widow in City Ward 2, Columbus, Muscogee County, Georgia (1860). Mother of six children.

Per Britton & Dobbs Funeral Home Records, 1889-1971 (transcribed by Patsy Daniel Wright, 2010), p. 63: Emeline DAVIS, residing in Upper Girard, Ala., died 16 JUL 1907, aged 82 years, of old age/general debility (physician FLOYD); buried JUL 1907 in Linwood Cemetery (clergyman R. W. GREEN) - services ordered by Thomas McCALLISTER.

"The News of Phenix City and Girard // MRS. EMALINE DAVIS HAS PASSED AWAY: She was One of The Oldest Residents of This Community. // Mrs. Emaline DAVIS, 82 years old, died at her residence, on the corner of First street and Seventh avenue, Girard, at 5:20 o'clock yesterday afternoon, of old age and general debility. She leaves two sons and one daughter?Mr. John DAVIS, of Phenix City, Mr. Jack DAVIS, of Florida, and Mrs. T. O. MEHAFFEE of Griffin, Ga. One brother, Mr. Thos. McCoLLISTER, of Phenix City, also survives her. // The funeral will take place from Mr. McCOLLISTER's residence at some hour this afternoon. The exact hour will not be fixed until after the arrival of Mrs. MEHAFFEE from Griffin. // Mrs. DAVIS had resided in Phenix City and Girard practically all of her life, and was one of the best known residents of the community. She had a great many friends over the Twin Cities, all of whom will be saddened to learn of her death." [Columbus (GA) Enquirer-Sun newspaper, Wednesday, 17 JUL 1907, p. 6.]

"The News of Phenix City and Girard // MRS. DAVIS' FUNERAL // The funeral of Mrs. Emaline DAVIS, whose death occurred at her home on the corner of Seventh avenue and First street, Girard, Tuesday afternoon, took place yesterday afternoon at three o'clock from the residence of Mr. Thomas McCOLLISTER in Phenix City, conducted by Rev. R. W. GREENE. Interment was in Linwood cemetery, the following gentlemen being the pallbearers: Messrs. B. W. EDMUNDS, J. L. TAYLOR, J. M. WILDER, H. SKIPPER, J. W. WILLIAMS and A. G. BANKSTON." [Columbus (GA) Enquirer-Sun newspaper, Thursday, 18 JUL 1907, p. 6.]

Linwood Cemetery Sexton's Card #1596: Emaline DAVIS, female, born in Georgia, died a widow, aged 82 years, in Girard, Ala., of senility - death certificate #703; buried 17 JUL 1907 in Section 1, Lot 30 1/2 - 84 1/2 (undertaker Britton); sexton Jesse A Beard.

This grave is evidently not marked. The open lot has been included as part of Section A, Lot 164 in Dolores Autry's survey (Vol. I, pp. 102-03, edited by Lea Dowd et al), but is apparently a separate lot with no graves marked.

Siblings:

Mary (McCOLLISTER) SUMMERSGILL MARTIN

Thomas McCOLLISTER

Jane (McCOLLISTER) MARTIN

William McCOLLISTER

Aunt (sister of Sarah (BAILEY) McALISTER):

Nancy Elizabeth (BAILEY) ADERHOLD

Buried in the same lot: Eliza DAVIS

George DAVIS

Same lot or adjacent: Bennie DAVIS


Family links:
Parents:
Robert McColister (1797 - 1857)
Sarah Bailey McColister (1806 - 1858)

Children:
Hannah Lucinda Davis Mehaffey (1861 - 1932)*

Siblings:
Sophronia McAlister Hewson (____ - 1890)*
Syrena Emaline McCollister Davis (____ - 1907)
Andrew Jackson McColister (1825 - 1885)*
Mary McCollister Summersgill Martin (1829 - 1895)*
Thomas McCollister (1832 - 1927)*
Jane McCollister Martin (1833 - 1870)*
William McCollister (1840 - 1907)*

*Calculated relationship

Burial:
Linwood Cemetery
Columbus
Muscogee County
Georgia, USA
Plot: Sec. 1, Lots 30 1/2 & 84 1/2 (Sexton's system) 
MCCOLISTER, Syrena Emaline (I11271)
 
485 came to VA in 1621 BARHAM, Anthony (I3672)
 
486 Care should be taken not to confuse Richard S. Halley, Jr. with hisnephew Richard S. Halley, born 1810, son of Henry and Polly Patton Halley HALLEY, Richard Simpson (I10389)
 
487 Career
"mgr. of the evening paper connected with the Glasgow Herald"
Edinburgh Daily Review, mgr. 1877-86
Glasgow Herald, parl. corr. 1887
Northern Daily Telegraph (Blackburn), Ed. at 1890-1920

Life
Born c.1857, son of John Mackie and Janet Syme. Brother of William Syme Mackie and John Beverige Mackie. Joined the East Lancs branch of the National Union of Journalists, April 1907, resigning because of proprietorial interest Oct. 1920. Member of the Newspaper Press Fund. Died c.Nov. 1920. Left estate valued at ?5,264. Address at death: Blackburn, Lancs.

Source: https://www.scoop-database.com/


 
MACKIE, Robert Syme (I11384)
 
488 Career
worked as a reporter in Dunfermline, Cupar-Fife, and Edinburgh
Glasgow Herald, sub-ed. 1870-77
Edinburgh Daily Review, co.-ed. [with his brothers William and Robert] 1877-86
Newcastle Daily Leader, ldr. writer 1886-89
North Eastern Gazette (Middlesbrough), Ed. 1890-1903
Dunfermline Journal, staff at 1906: Ed. & prop. at 1910 -1919
Dunfermline Express, Ed. & prop. -1919
West Fife Echo, Ed. & prop. -1919
Rosyth & Forth Mail, Ed. & prop. -1919

Life
Born 2 June 1848 in Dunfermline, Scotland, son of John Mackie and Janet Syme. Brother of William Syme Mackie (q.v.) and Robert Syme Mackie (q.v.). Educ. Free Abbey Academy, Dunfermline. Married Feb. 1885, Lilias, dau. of James Robb (q.v.) editor of "The Scottish Farmer". They had two sons and three daughters. Joined the Institute of Journalists in 1890 and elected a Fellow in 1894. Author of several books including "Modern Journalism" (1894), "Pitcairnie: a Tale of the Press Gang", and the autobiographical "Memories". Died 22 May 1919. Address at 1893-at 1896: Woodlands, Road, Middlesbrough. Last known address: Park Place, Dunfermline.

Source: https://www.scoop-database.com/


 
MACKIE, John Beveridge (I11383)
 
489 CARROLL COUNTY DEATHS - F-G-H
http://www.thegagenweb.com/gacarro2/carr-deaths-FGH.htm
HANSON JAMES F OCT. 2, 1934 25899
 
HANSON, James Franklin (I7486)
 
490 Carroll County GaArchives News..Newspaper abstracts for APRIL & MAY 1884
http://ftp.rootsweb.com/pub/usgenweb/ga/carroll/newspapers/newspape2221gnw.txt
COMPANY "F" 7th GA

"Mr. Editor, allow me space in your columns to answer my old friend's call for a
list of Company "F" 7th GA Regiment. Here is a list which is only committed to
my memory, as I was Orderly Sergeant of that Company for eighteen months. No
papers or anything to recall the names and a great many names have slipped my
memory; any old member of this company who can think of more names in one day,
can beat me. Company "F" was engaged in one hundred and twenty-two battles and
skirmishes and twenty-two hard fought battles. The Iverson Invincibles was the
name of this Company. In answer to J.M. Hamrick, J.F.M. Hanson

I cannot replace (recall?) the junior officers and also other names come to
mind. J.F.M.H."
 
HANSON, Captain James Franklin Marion (I43)
 
491 Cause of death: Cerebral Hemorrhage DEBERRY, Eliza Ellen (I9498)
 
492 Cause of Death: Family lore notes that Jane died in or soon after the birth of a child. Also, the will of Jane's father, Robert S. Bailey, supports this premise.

Note: NOTE: Jane's 1852 death date is based on fact that her husband Harmon Gable and son are mentioned as heirs in Robert S. Bailey's will that was signed in January of 1852.
 
BAILEY, Jane (I40729)
 
493 Cause: Drowning HINSON, Joseph (I69808)
 
494 Cemetery is located on Center Highway, 3miles from Logansport, Desoto Parish, Louisiana. Source (S190)
 
495 Census 1840 Randolph County, Alabama NEWSOM, Silas (I1234)
 
496 CENSUS DATA: In the 1850 United States Federal Census, Catharine McAlister, 3, born abt 1847 in GA is shown living with her parents and siblings in Columbus, Muscogee, Georgia. See full 1850 census record in notes for Catherine's father, Robert McCollister.

CENSUS DATA: Andrew J. McCollister, son of Robert and Sarah Bailey McCollister, is shown in the 1860 census record of Carroll Co., Ga. 6th Dist., Villa Rica Post office @ line 17. Shown living with Andrew, age 34, are his wife, Louisa, age 33; his son Thomas (Thomas Marion), age 8; his dau. Sarah C. E., age 5; his dau. Josephine, age 1. More interesting is that also living in the household was a female named Catherine McCollister, age 12.
--------------------------------------------------------------
Based on Carroll County, Ga records, Inferior Court Minutes, Book AA, P. 202, this is Catherine McCollister, Andrew J.'s sister who had moved with her parents, Robert and Sarah, and some of her siblings to Muscogee, Co. Ga. in 1849. The Carroll County Inferior Court Minutes, Book AA, reads as follows:
"Carroll Court of Ordinary, December Term 1859. It appearing to the Court that Andrew McAllister of said County has made application for letters of guardianship of Catherine McAllister a minor orphan of Robert McCallister deceased and it appearing that notice of said application has been published according to laws, and no objections having been made and the said Andrew McAllister having given Bond in the sum of Two hundred dollars with John J. Davis as his security and taken oath prescribed by Law. It is therefore ordered that the said Andrew McAllister be and he is appointed Guardian of the aforesaid Catherine and that letters of Guardianship be issued to him accordingly. J. M. Blalock, Ordinary."
--------------------------------------------------------
According to grave marker and cemetery records at Linwood Cemetery in Columbus, Ga., a Catherine is buried in Thomas McCollister's plot. Cemetery records and grave marker etching shows Catherine was a sister to Thomas and was born on August 14, 1847. The birth date would be about right for the 12 year age shown in the 1860 census. The records show she died April 18, 1888. Since she was living with her brother Andrew J. McCollister and his family in 1860 indicates that her parent's, Robert and Sarah, were both deceased by December 1859. 
MCCOLISTER, Catherine (I11280)
 
497 Chambers County AlArchives News.....Locals are Member of First Family May 24 2004 ************************************************ Copyright. All rights reserved. http://www.usgwarchives.net/copyright.htm http://www.usgwarchives.net/al/alfiles.htm ************************************************

File contributed for use in USGenWeb Archives by: Ron Williams hopewellroad@yahoo.com July 18, 2004, 9:38 pm

Valley Times News: Past Times
Locals are members of First Family

Oral family history, stories passed down from one generation to the next for centuries, is an interesting and debated part of genealogy. There are those who think that proven facts are the only things that belong in a family?s history, but wills, census records, and court documents don?t always make for good reading. That is why the oral family traditions are so important; they make the history come alive. Stick figures from our past leap to life.

The descendants of Francis Marion Hanson, who came to the Valley (Chambers County, Alabama) in the years just after the Civil War, claim an interesting piece of oral history. It is a piece that has been confounding researchers all over the nation for many years. They claim to be descendants of the first President of the United States.

Francis, or Frank, as he was called, was the son of Enoch Hanson and the grandson of William Hanson, pioneers of Monroe County, Georgia, where they enjoyed a pampered life. The old plantation home, where the Hanson?s lived, still stands just outside of Forsythe on a red-dirt road overlooking rolling hills. Tucked just inside the tree line is the family cemetery where generations of the Hansons are buried.

Thousands of descendants of William Hanson are spread across the nation. In fairly recent years, as genealogy has become more popular, the descendants of this pioneer are making contact again. Families that had drifted apart almost two hundred years ago were again making contact, and it was discovered that one story had survived in many of the family lines---We are members of the family of John Hanson, the first President of the United States.

?John Hanson,? you question. ?The first President?? Yes, John Hanson, sometimes called ?the Forgotten American?, is argued by some to be the nation?s first ?Chief of State?. If fact, some radical historians argue, even today, that George Washington was indeed the eighth President rather than the first that history books record.

Frank Hanson also brought this story with him as he crossed the Chattahoochee in the post war days. The Civil War had robbed the Hanson?s of their wealth, and Frank reportedly came to the Valley in search of gold, of which he found none. While here he taught at the school in Langdale, where he was known as Professor Hanson at the little school on Cemetery Hill.

Frank finally returned to his native Forsythe, but he left three things here: Frank, Jr.(of Lagrange), Carrie Breedlove (of Langdale), and Kate Crowder (of Shawmut), three grown children who had followed their father to the Valley, who remained, and who leave many hundreds of descendants of the first ?First Family? scattered all over the Valley today.
John Hanson was a man who loved the idea of Freedom and who wholeheartedly supported the effort of the American Revolution. He was born on April 3, 1721, at Charles County, Maryland, to the state?s most prominent family. His forgotten claim to fame is that he was the First President of the First Continental Congress in the U.S. Assembled. He was also a signer of the Articles Of Confederation.

During Hanson?s term as President peace was negotiated with England. Hanson ordered all foreign troops off American soil. He also established the first Treasury Department, the first Secretary of War, and the first Foreign Affairs Department. Hanson also left his mark each November. It was Hanson who declared the fourth Thursday of that month as Thanksgiving Day.

?The Great Seal of the United States was first used on September 16, 1782, by President Hanson when he signed the orders for an exchange of military prisoners,? wrote Harry V. Martin, historian, arguing the most powerful point in Hanson?s defense. ?In 1803, the U.S. Supreme Court discussed the legality of the Great Seal, ruling that it was created by the first President of the United States and has been used ever since. The Supreme Court ruled that the signature of the President and stamp of the Great Seal are necessary to consummate law. It was President Hanson who recommended the creation of the Seal and there have been no changes in it since it was created under the Hanson Administration?On July 24, 1789, President Washington requested the delivery of the Great Seal, recognizing that he was not technically President of the United States without it. In fact, the absence of the Seal created a need to call an emergency session of Congress. Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson introduced a resolution that stated that ?Washington accepts every condition, law, rule, and authority, under the Great Seal and the first President of the United States John Hanson.??

?On the 200th Anniversary of the surrender of Cornwallis,? continued Martin, ?the Congress of the United States struck a bronze medallion showing Washington reviewing the troops. On the reverse side of that medallion is a commemorative to John Hanson, ?First President under the Articles of Confederation?. John Hanson was more than a presiding officer of Congress; he was the first President of the United States and established traditions and institutions that are still preserved in the American Presidency. His name may be forgotten, but his work established the foundation of this nation.?

The only thing harder than proving that John Hanson was the first President is proving that William Hanson descends from that famous Hanson family. It is known that the Monroe County William was born in Fauquier County, Virginia, which is just across the bay from Charles County, Maryland, and John Hanson?s beautiful home.

Modern researchers agree that William is probably the son of Fauquier County?s Robert Hanson, even though William wasn?t mentioned in Robert?s will. Another family story states that William left Virginia for his wife?s health, a move that removed him from his father?s good graces and the family inheritance. One other fact that tends to support this theory is that Williams? daughter named her son Robert Hanson.

The tie to Robert is important in this story because he is the son of Samuel Hanson, of Maryland, brother of the forgotten John. And so the web is weaved. Descendants all over the country are trying to prove the connection to Robert and Samuel, which would prove for all of time that we descend from the family of the America?s forgotten hero, but don?t try to join the Son?s of the American Revolution with just a story. They will laugh you back across the Potomac.

File at: http://files.usgwarchives.net/al/chambers/newspapers/gnw84localsar.txt
 
HANSON, Francis Marion (I671953437)
 
498 charged in 1378 with the abduction of Margery Narford, grand daughter and heir to Alice, Lady Neville. Such was the serious nature of the offence that Howard was not only sent to the Tower but also bound under substantial recognizances to do no harm to Lady Neville and his captor, Sis John Le Strange; furthermore, his case was brought to the attention of Parliament. But such animosity as possibly remained between Strange and Howard did not, in the following year, prevent Richard, earl of Arundel, from having both men act as witnesses to one of his transactions.  HOWARD, Sir Robert (I672075410)
 
499 Charlemagne (pronounced /ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn/; Latin: Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus, meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814) was King of the Franks from 768 to his death. He expanded the Frankish kingdoms into a Frankish Empire that incorporated much of Western and Central Europe. During his reign, he conquered Italy and was crowned Imperator Augustus by Pope Leo III on 25 December 800 as a rival of the Byzantine Emperor in Constantinople. His rule is also associated with the Carolingian Renaissance, a revival of art, religion, and culture through the medium of the Catholic Church. Through his foreign conquests and internal reforms, Charlemagne helped define both Western Europe and the Middle Ages. He is numbered as Charles I in the regnal lists of France, Germany, and the Holy Roman Empire.
The son of King Pippin the Short and Bertrada of Laon, he succeeded his father and co-ruled with his brother Carloman I. The latter got on badly with Charlemagne, but war was prevented by the sudden death of Carloman in 771. Charlemagne continued the policy of his father towards the papacy and became its protector, removing the Lombards from power in Italy, and waging war on the Saracens, who menaced his realm from Spain. It was during one of these campaigns that Charlemagne experienced the worst defeat of his life, at Roncesvalles (778). He also campaigned against the peoples to his east, especially the Saxons, and after a protracted war subjected them to his rule. By forcibly converting them to Christianity, he integrated them into his realm and thus paved the way for the later Ottonian dynasty.
Today he is regarded not only as the founding father of both French and German monarchies, but also as the father of Europe: his empire united most of Western Europe for the first time since the Romans, and the Carolingian renaissance encouraged the formation of a common European identity.[1] Pierre Riché reflects:
“ . . . he enjoyed an exceptional destiny, and by the length of his reign, by his conquests, legislation and legendary stature, he also profoundly marked the history of western Europe.[2]

Contents
[hide]
• 1 Background
• 2 Personal traits
o 2.1 Date and place of birth
o 2.2 Language
o 2.3 Personal appearance
o 2.4 Dress
• 3 Rise to power
o 3.1 Early life
o 3.2 Joint rule
• 4 Italian campaigns
o 4.1 Conquest of Lombardy
o 4.2 Southern Italy
• 5 Charles and his children
• 6 Spanish campaigns
o 6.1 Roncesvalles campaign
o 6.2 Wars with the Moors
• 7 Eastern campaigns
o 7.1 Saxon Wars
o 7.2 Submission of Bavaria
o 7.3 Avar campaigns
o 7.4 Slav expeditions
• 8 Imperium
o 8.1 Imperial diplomacy
o 8.2 Danish attacks
o 8.3 Death
• 9 Administration
o 9.1 Economic and monetary reforms
o 9.2 Education reforms
o 9.3 Writing reforms
o 9.4 Political reforms
• 10 Cultural significance
• 11 Family
o 11.1 Marriages and heirs
o 11.2 Concubinages and illegitimate children
• 12 References
o 12.1 Notes
o 12.2 Bibliography
• 13 External links

Background
By the 6th century the Franks were Christianised, and the Francia ruled by the Merovingians had become the most powerful of the kingdoms which succeeded the Western Roman Empire. But following the Battle of Tertry, the Merovingians declined into a state of powerlessness, for which they have been dubbed do-nothing kings (rois fainéants). Almost all government powers of any consequence were exercised by their chief officer, the mayor of the palace or major domus.
In 687, Pippin of Herstal, mayor of the palace of Austrasia, ended the strife between various kings and their mayors with his victory at Tertry and became the sole governor of the entire Frankish kingdom. Pippin himself was the grandson of two most important figures of the Austrasian Kingdom, Saint Arnulf of Metz and Pippin of Landen. Pippin the Middle was eventually succeeded by his illegitimate son Charles, later known as Charles Martel (the Hammer). After 737, Charles governed the Franks without a king on the throne but desisted from calling himself "king". Charles was succeeded by his sons Carloman and Pippin the Short, the father of Charlemagne. To curb separatism in the periphery of the realm, the brothers placed on the throne Childeric III, who was to be the last Merovingian king.
After Carloman resigned his office, Pippin had Childeric III deposed with Pope Zachary's approval. In 751, Pippin was elected and anointed King of the Franks and in 754, Pope Stephen II again anointed him and his young sons, now heirs to the great realm which already covered most of western and central Europe. Thus was the Merovingian dynasty replaced by the Carolingian dynasty, named after Pippin's father Charles Martel.
Under the new dynasty, the Frankish kingdom spread to encompass an area including most of Western Europe. The division of that kingdom formed France and Germany;[3] and the religious, political, and artistic evolutions originating from a centrally-positioned Francia made a defining imprint on the whole of Western Europe.
Personal traits


Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. Tenth-century copy of a lost original from about 830.
Date and place of birth
Charlemagne is believed to have been born in 742; however, several factors have led to a reconsideration of this date. First, the year 742 was calculated from his age given at death, rather than from attestation in primary sources. Another date is given in the Annales Petarienses, April 1, 747. In that year, April 1 was at Easter. The birth of an emperor at eastertime is a coincidence likely to provoke comment, but there was no such comment documented in 747, leading some to suspect that the Easter birthday was a pious fiction concocted as a way of honoring the Emperor. Other commentators weighing the primary records have suggested that his birth was one year later, in 748. At present, it is impossible to be certain of the date of the birth of Charlemagne. The best guesses include April 1, 747, after April 15, 747, or April 1, 748, in Herstal (where his father was born, a city close to Liège in modern day Belgium), the region from where both the Merovingian and Carolingian families originate. He went to live in his father's villa in Jupille when he was around seven, which caused Jupille to be listed as a possible place of birth in almost every history book. Other cities have been suggested, including, Prüm, Düren, Gauting and Aachen.
Charlemagne's birth-name, "Charles" was derived from his grandfather, Charles Martel. The name derives from "karl", a Germanic stem meaning "man" or "free man",[4] related to the English "churl". The earliest extant forms of Charlemagne's name are in the Latinate form, "Carolus" or "Karolus".
In many Slavic languages, the very word for "king" derives from Charles' Slavicised name.
Language
Charlemagne's native tongue is a matter of controversy. His mother speech was probably a Germanic dialect of the Franks of the time, but linguists differ on the identity and periodisation of the language, some going so far as to say that he did not speak Old Frankish as he was born in 742 or 747, by which time Old Frankish had become extinct. Old Frankish is reconstructed from its descendant, Old Low Franconian, also called Old Dutch, and from loanwords to Old French. Linguists know very little about Old Frankish, as it attested mainly as phrases and words in the law codes of the main Frankish tribes (especially those of the Salian and Ripuarian Franks), which are written in Latin interspersed with Germanic elements.[5]
The area of Charlemagne's birth does not make determination of his native language easier. Most historians agree he was born around Liège, like his father, but some say he was born in or around Aachen, some fifty kilometres away. At that time, this was an area of great linguistic diversity. If we take Liège (around 750) as the centre, we find Low Franconian in the north and northwest, Gallo-Romance (the ancestor of Old French) in the south and southwest and various Old High German dialects in the east. If Gallo-Romance is excluded, that means he either spoke Old Low Franconian or an Old High German dialect, probably with a strong Frankish influence.
Apart from his native language he also spoke Latin "as fluently as his own tongue" and understood a bit of Greek: Grecam vero melius intellegere quam pronuntiare poterat, "He understood Greek better than he could pronounce it."[6]
Personal appearance
Though no description from Charlemagne's lifetime exists, his personal appearance is known from a good description by Einhard, author of the biographical Vita Caroli Magni. Einhard tells in his twenty-second chapter:
Charles was large and strong, and of lofty stature, though not disproportionately tall (his height is well known to have been seven times the length of his foot); the upper part of his head was round, his eyes very large and animated, nose a little long, hair fair, and face laughing and merry. Thus his appearance was always stately and dignified, whether he was standing or sitting; although his neck was thick and somewhat short, and his belly rather prominent; but the symmetry of the rest of his body concealed these defects. His gait was firm, his whole carriage manly, and his voice clear, but not so strong as his size led one to expect.
Charles is well known to have been tall, stately, and fair-haired, with a disproportionately thick neck. The Roman tradition of realistic personal portraiture was in complete eclipse in his time, where individual traits were submerged in iconic typecastings. Charlemagne, as an ideal ruler, ought to be portrayed in the corresponding fashion, any contemporary would have assumed. The images of enthroned Charlemagne, God's representative on Earth, bear more connections to the icons of Christ in majesty than to modern (or antique) conceptions of portraiture. Charlemagne in later imagery (as in the Dürer portrait) is often portrayed with flowing blond hair, due to a misunderstanding of Einhard, who describes Charlemagne as having canitie pulchra, or "beautiful white hair", which has been rendered as blonde or fair in many translations.
Dress


Part of the treasure in Aachen
Charlemagne wore the traditional, inconspicuous and distinctly non-aristocratic costume of the Frankish people, described by Einhard thus:
He used to wear the national, that is to say, the Frank dress: next to his skin a linen shirt and linen breeches, and above these a tunic fringed with silk; while hose fastened by bands covered his lower limbs, and shoes his feet, and he protected his shoulders and chest in winter by a close-fitting coat of otter or marten skins.
He wore a blue cloak and always carried a sword with him. The typical sword was of a golden or silver hilt. He wore fancy jewelled swords to banquets or ambassadorial receptions. Nevertheless:
He despised foreign costumes, however handsome, and never allowed himself to be robed in them, except twice in Rome, when he donned the Roman tunic, chlamys, and shoes; the first time at the request of Pope Hadrian, the second to gratify Leo, Hadrian's successor.
He could rise to the occasion when necessary. On great feast days, he wore embroidery and jewels on his clothing and shoes. He had a golden buckle for his cloak on such occasions and would appear with his great diadem, but he despised such apparel, according to Einhard, and usually dressed like the common people.
Rise to power
Early life
Charlemagne was the eldest child of Pippin the Short (714 – 24 September 768, reigned from 751) and his wife Bertrada of Laon (720 – 12 July 783), daughter of Caribert of Laon and Bertrada of Cologne. Records name only Carloman, Gisela, and a short-lived child named Pippin as his younger siblings. The semi-mythical Redburga, wife of King Egbert of Wessex, is sometimes claimed to be his sister (or sister-in-law or niece), and the legendary material makes him Roland's maternal uncle through a lady Bertha.
Much of what is known of Charlemagne's life comes from his biographer, Einhard, who wrote a Vita Caroli Magni (or Vita Karoli Magni), the Life of Charlemagne. Einhard says of the early life of Charles:
It would be folly, I think, to write a word concerning Charles' birth and infancy, or even his boyhood, for nothing has ever been written on the subject, and there is no one alive now who can give information on it. Accordingly, I determined to pass that by as unknown, and to proceed at once to treat of his character, his deed, and such other facts of his life as are worth telling and setting forth, and shall first give an account of his deed at home and abroad, then of his character and pursuits, and lastly of his administration and death, omitting nothing worth knowing or necessary to know.
On the death of Pippin, the kingdom of the Franks was divided—following tradition—between Charlemagne and Carloman. Charles took the outer parts of the kingdom, bordering on the sea, namely Neustria, western Aquitaine, and the northern parts of Austrasia, while Carloman retained the inner parts: southern Austrasia, Septimania, eastern Aquitaine, Burgundy, Provence, and Swabia, lands bordering on Italy.
Joint rule
On 9 October, immediately after the funeral of their father, both the kings withdrew from Saint Denis to be proclaimed by their nobles and consecrated by the bishops, Charlemagne in Noyon and Carloman in Soissons.
The first event of the brothers' reign was the rising of the Aquitainians and Gascons, in 769, in that territory split between the two kings. Years before Pippin had suppressed the revolt of Waifer, Duke of Aquitaine. Now, one Hunald (seemingly other than Hunald the duke) led the Aquitainians as far north as Angoulême. Charlemagne met Carloman, but Carloman refused to participate and returned to Burgundy. Charlemagne went to war, leading an army to Bordeaux, where he set up a camp at Fronsac. Hunold was forced to flee to the court of Duke Lupus II of Gascony. Lupus, fearing Charlemagne, turned Hunold over in exchange for peace. He was put in a monastery. Aquitaine was finally fully subdued by the Franks.
The brothers maintained lukewarm relations with the assistance of their mother Bertrada, but in 770 Charlemagne signed a treaty with Duke Tassilo III of Bavaria and married a Lombard Princess (commonly known today as Desiderata), the daughter of King Desiderius, in order to surround Carloman with his own allies. Though Pope Stephen III first opposed the marriage with the Lombard princess, he would soon have little to fear from a Frankish-Lombard alliance.
Less than a year after his marriage, Charlemagne repudiated Desiderata, and quickly remarried to a 13-year-old Swabian named Hildegard. The repudiated Desiderata returned to her father's court at Pavia. The Lombard's wrath was now aroused and he would gladly have allied with Carloman to defeat Charles. But before war could break out, Carloman died on 5 December 771. Carloman's wife Gerberga fled to Desiderius' court with her sons for protection.
Italian campaigns
Conquest of Lombardy


The Frankish king Charlemagne was a devout Catholic who maintained a close relationship with the papacy throughout his life. In 772, when Pope Hadrian I was threatened by invaders, the king rushed to Rome to provide assistance. Shown here, the pope asks Charlemagne for help at a meeting near Rome
At the succession of Pope Hadrian I in 772, he demanded the return of certain cities in the former exarchate of Ravenna as in accordance with a promise of Desiderius' succession. Desiderius instead took over certain papal cities and invaded the Pentapolis, heading for Rome. Hadrian sent embassies to Charlemagne in autumn requesting he enforce the policies of his father, Pippin. Desiderius sent his own embassies denying the pope's charges. The embassies both met at Thionville and Charlemagne upheld the pope's side. Charlemagne promptly demanded what the pope had demanded and Desiderius promptly swore never to comply. Charlemagne and his uncle Bernard crossed the Alps in 773 and chased the Lombards back to Pavia, which they then besieged. Charlemagne temporarily left the siege to deal with Adelchis, son of Desiderius, who was raising an army at Verona. The young prince was chased to the Adriatic littoral and he fled to Constantinople to plead for assistance from Constantine V, who was waging war with Bulgaria.
The siege lasted until the spring of 774, when Charlemagne visited the pope in Rome. There he confirmed his father's grants of land, with some later chronicles claiming—falsely—that he also expanded them, granting Tuscany, Emilia, Venice, and Corsica. The pope granted him the title patrician. He then returned to Pavia, where the Lombards were on the verge of surrendering.
In return for their lives, the Lombards surrendered and opened the gates in early summer. Desiderius was sent to the abbey of Corbie and his son Adelchis died in Constantinople a patrician. Charles, unusually, had himself crowned with the Iron Crown and made the magnates of Lombardy do homage to him at Pavia. Only Duke Arechis II of Benevento refused to submit and proclaimed independence. Charlemagne was now master of Italy as king of the Lombards. He left Italy with a garrison in Pavia and few Frankish counts in place that very year.
There was still instability, however, in Italy. In 776, Dukes Hrodgaud of Friuli and Hildeprand of Spoleto rebelled. Charlemagne rushed back from Saxony and defeated the duke of Friuli in battle. The duke was slain. The duke of Spoleto signed a treaty. Their co-conspirator, Arechis, was not subdued and Adelchis, their candidate in Byzantium, never left that city. Northern Italy was now faithfully his.
Southern Italy
In 787 Charlemagne directed his attention towards Benevento, where Arechis was reigning independently. He besieged Salerno and Arechis submitted to vassalage. However, with his death in 792, Benevento again proclaimed independence under his son Grimoald III. Grimoald was attacked by armies of Charles' or his sons' many times, but Charlemagne himself never returned to the Mezzogiorno and Grimoald never was forced to surrender to Frankish suzerainty.
Charles and his children
During the first peace of any substantial length (780–782), Charles began to appoint his sons to positions of authority within the realm, in the tradition of the kings and mayors of the past. In 781 he made his two younger sons kings, having them crowned by the Pope. The elder of these two, Carloman, was made king of Italy, taking the Iron Crown which his father had first worn in 774, and in the same ceremony was renamed "Pippin". The younger of the two, Louis, became king of Aquitaine. He ordered Pippin and Louis to be raised in the customs of their kingdoms, and he gave their regents some control of their subkingdoms, but real power was always in his hands, though he intended each to inherit their realm some day. Nor did he tolerate insubordination in his sons: in 792, he banished his eldest, though illegitimate, son, Pippin the Hunchback, to the monastery of Prüm, because the young man had joined a rebellion against him.
The sons fought many wars on behalf of their father when they came of age. Charles was mostly preoccupied with the Bretons, whose border he shared and who insurrected on at least two occasions and were easily put down, but he was also sent against the Saxons on multiple occasions. In 805 and 806, he was sent into the Böhmerwald (modern Bohemia) to deal with the Slavs living there (Czechs). He subjected them to Frankish authority and devastated the valley of the Elbe, forcing a tribute on them. Pippin had to hold the Avar and Beneventan borders, but also fought the Slavs to his north. He was uniquely poised to fight the Byzantine Empire when finally that conflict arose after Charlemagne's imperial coronation and a Venetian rebellion. Finally, Louis was in charge of the Spanish March and also went to southern Italy to fight the duke of Benevento on at least one occasion. He took Barcelona in a great siege in the year 797 (see below).
Charlemagne's attitude toward his daughters has been the subject of much discussion. He kept them at home with him, and refused to allow them to contract sacramental marriages – possibly to prevent the creation of cadet branches of the family to challenge the main line, as had been the case with Tassilo of Bavaria – yet he tolerated their extramarital relationships, even rewarding their common-law husbands, and treasured the bastard grandchildren they produced for him. He also, apparently, refused to believe stories of their wild behaviour. After his death the surviving daughters were banished from the court by their brother, the pious Louis, to take up residence in the convents they had been bequeathed by their father. At least one of them, Bertha, had a recognised relationship, if not a marriage, with Angilbert, a member of Charlemagne's court circle.
Spanish campaigns
Roncesvalles campaign


Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne in an illustration taken from a manuscript of a chanson de geste
According to the Muslim historian Ibn al-Athir, the Diet of Paderborn had received the representatives of the Muslim rulers of Zaragoza, Gerona, Barcelona, and Huesca. Their masters had been cornered in the Iberian peninsula by Abd ar-Rahman I, the Umayyad emir of Córdoba. These Moorish or "Saracen" rulers offered their homage to the great king of the Franks in return for military support. Seeing an opportunity to extend Christendom and his own power and believing the Saxons to be a fully conquered nation, he agreed to go to Spain.
In 778, he led the Neustrian army across the Western Pyrenees, while the Austrasians, Lombards, and Burgundians passed over the Eastern Pyrenees. The armies met at Zaragoza and received the homage of Sulayman al-Arabi and Kasmin ibn Yusuf, the foreign rulers. Zaragoza did not fall soon enough for Charlemagne, however. Indeed, Charlemagne was facing the toughest battle of his career and, in fear of losing, he decided to retreat and head home. He could not trust the Moors, nor the Basques, whom he had subdued by conquering Pamplona. He turned to leave Iberia, but as he was passing through the Pass of Roncesvalles one of the most famous events of his long reign occurred. The Basques fell on his rearguard and baggage train, utterly destroying it. The Battle of Roncevaux Pass, less a battle than a mere skirmish, left many famous dead: among which were the seneschal Eggihard, the count of the palace Anselm, and the warden of the Breton March, Roland, inspiring the subsequent creation of the Song of Roland (Chanson de Roland).
Wars with the Moors
The conquest of Italy brought Charlemagne in contact with the Saracens who, at the time, controlled the Mediterranean. Pippin, his son, was much occupied with Saracens in Italy. Charlemagne conquered Corsica and Sardinia at an unknown date and in 799 the Balearic Islands. The islands were often attacked by Saracen pirates, but the counts of Genoa and Tuscany (Boniface) kept them at bay with large fleets until the end of Charlemagne's reign. Charlemagne even had contact with the caliphal court in Baghdad. In 797 (or possibly 801), the caliph of Baghdad, Harun al-Rashid, presented Charlemagne with an Asian elephant named Abul-Abbas and a mechanical clock[citation needed], out of which came a mechanical bird to announce the hours.
In Hispania, the struggle against the Moors continued unabated throughout the latter half of his reign. His son Louis was in charge of the Spanish border. In 785, his men captured Gerona permanently and extended Frankish control into the Catalan littoral for the duration of Charlemagne's reign (and much longer, it remained nominally Frankish until the Treaty of Corbeil in 1258). The Muslim chiefs in the northeast of Islamic Spain were constantly revolting against Córdoban authority and they often turned to the Franks for help. The Frankish border was slowly extended until 795, when Gerona, Cardona, Ausona, and Urgel were united into the new Spanish March, within the old duchy of Septimania.
In 797 Barcelona, the greatest city of the region, fell to the Franks when Zeid, its governor, rebelled against Córdoba and, failing, handed it to them. The Umayyad authority recaptured it in 799. However, Louis of Aquitaine marched the entire army of his kingdom over the Pyrenees and besieged it for two years, wintering there from 800 to 801, when it capitulated. The Franks continued to press forwards against the emir. They took Tarragona in 809 and Tortosa in 811. The last conquest brought them to the mouth of the Ebro and gave them raiding access to Valencia, prompting the Emir al-Hakam I to recognise their conquests in 812.
Eastern campaigns
Saxon Wars
Charlemagne was engaged in almost constant battle throughout his reign, often at the head of his elite scara bodyguard squadrons, with his legendary sword Joyeuse in hand. After thirty years of war and eighteen battles—the Saxon Wars—he conquered Saxonia and proceeded to convert the conquered to Roman Catholicism, using force where necessary.
The Saxons were divided into four subgroups in four regions. Nearest to Austrasia was Westphalia and furthest away was Eastphalia. In between these two kingdoms was that of Engria and north of these three, at the base of the Jutland peninsula, was Nordalbingia.
In his first campaign, Charlemagne forced the Engrians in 773 to submit and cut down an Irminsul pillar near Paderborn. The campaign was cut short by his first expedition to Italy. He returned in the year 775, marching through Westphalia and conquering the Saxon fort of Sigiburg. He then crossed Engria, where he defeated the Saxons again. Finally, in Eastphalia, he defeated a Saxon force, and its leader Hessi converted to Christianity. He returned through Westphalia, leaving encampments at Sigiburg and Eresburg, which had, up until then, been important Saxon bastions. All Saxony but Nordalbingia was under his control, but Saxon resistance had not ended.
Following his campaign in Italy subjugating the dukes of Friuli and Spoleto, Charlemagne returned very rapidly to Saxony in 776, where a rebellion had destroyed his fortress at Eresburg. The Saxons were once again brought to heel, but their main leader, duke Widukind, managed to escape to Denmark, home of his wife. Charlemagne built a new camp at Karlstadt. In 777, he called a national diet at Paderborn to integrate Saxony fully into the Frankish kingdom. Many Saxons were baptised.
In the summer of 779, he again invaded Saxony and reconquered Eastphalia, Engria, and Westphalia. At a diet near Lippe, he divided the land into missionary districts and himself assisted in several mass baptisms (780). He then returned to Italy and, for the first time, there was no immediate Saxon revolt. In 780 Charlemagne decreed the death penalty for all Saxons who failed to be baptised, who failed to keep Christian festivals, and who cremated their dead. Saxony had peace from 780 to 782.
He returned in 782 to Saxony and instituted a code of law and appointed counts, both Saxon and Frank. The laws were draconian on religious issues, and the indigenous forms of Germanic polytheism were gravely threatened by Christianisation. This stirred a renewal of the old conflict. That year, in autumn, Widukind returned and led a new revolt, which resulted in several assaults on the church. In response, at Verden in Lower Saxony, Charlemagne allegedly ordered the beheading of 4,500 Saxons who had been caught practising their native paganism after conversion to Christianity, known as the Massacre of Verden. The massacre triggered three years of renewed bloody warfare (783-785). During this war the Frisians were also finally subdued and a large part of their fleet was burned. The war ended with Widukind accepting baptism.
Thereafter, the Saxons maintained the peace for seven years, but in 792 the Westphalians once again rose against their conquerors. The Eastphalians and Nordalbingians joined them in 793, but the insurrection did not catch on and was put down by 794. An Engrian rebellion followed in 796, but Charlemagne's personal presence and the presence of Christian Saxons and Slavs quickly crushed it. The last insurrection of the independence-minded people occurred in 804, more than thirty years after Charlemagne's first campaign against them. This time, the most unruly of them, the Nordalbingians, found themselves effectively disempowered from rebellion. According to Einhard:
The war that had lasted so many years was at length ended by their acceding to the terms offered by the King; which were renunciation of their national religious customs and the worship of devils, acceptance of the sacraments of the Christian faith and religion, and union with the Franks to form one people.
The heathen resistance in Saxony was at an end.
Submission of Bavaria
In 788, Charlemagne turned his attention to Bavaria. He claimed Tassilo was an unfit ruler on account of his oath-breaking. The charges were trumped up, but Tassilo was deposed anyway and put in the monastery of Jumièges. In 794, he was made to renounce any claim to Bavaria for himself and his family (the Agilolfings) at the synod of Frankfurt. Bavaria was subdivided into Frankish counties, like Saxony.
Avar campaigns
In 788, the Avars, a pagan Asian horde which had settled down in what is today Hungary (Einhard called them Huns), invaded Friuli and Bavaria. Charles was preoccupied until 790 with other things, but in that year, he marched down the Danube into their territory and ravaged it to the Raab. Then, a Lombard army under Pippin marched into the Drava valley and ravaged Pannonia. The campaigns would have continued if the Saxons had not revolted again in 792, breaking seven years of peace.
For the next two years, Charles was occupied with the Slavs against the Saxons. Pippin and Duke Eric of Friuli continued, however, to assault the Avars' ring-shaped strongholds. The great Ring of the Avars, their capital fortress, was taken twice. The booty was sent to Charlemagne at his capital, Aachen, and redistributed to all his followers and even to foreign rulers, including King Offa of Mercia. Soon the Avar tuduns had thrown in the towel and travelled to Aachen to subject themselves to Charlemagne as vassals and Christians. This Charlemagne accepted and sent one native chief, baptised Abraham, back to Avaria with the ancient title of khagan. Abraham kept his people in line, but in 800 the Bulgarians under Krum had swept the Avar state away. In the 10th century, the Magyars settled the Pannonian plain and presented a new threat to Charlemagne's descendants.
Slav expeditions
In 789, in recognition of his new pagan neighbours, the Slavs, Charlemagne marched an Austrasian-Saxon army across the Elbe into Abotrite territory. The Slavs immediately submitted under their leader Witzin. He then accepted the surrender of the Wiltzes under Dragovit and demanded many hostages and the permission to send, unmolested, missionaries into the pagan region. The army marched to the Baltic before turning around and marching to the Rhine with much booty and no harassment. The tributary Slavs became loyal allies. In 795, the peace broken by the Saxons, the Abotrites and Wiltzes rose in arms with their new master against the Saxons. Witzin died in battle and Charlemagne avenged him by harrying the Eastphalians on the Elbe. Thrasuco, his successor, led his men to conquest over the Nordalbingians and handed their leaders over to Charlemagne, who greatly honoured him. The Abotrites remained loyal until Charles' death and fought later against the Danes.
Charlemagne also directed his attention to the Slavs to the south of the Avar khaganate: the Carantanians and Slovenes. These people were subdued by the Lombards and Bavarii and made tributaries, but never incorporated into the Frankish state.
Imperium
Imperial diplomacy


Charlemagne's chapel at Aachen Cathedral.
Matters of Charlemagne's reign came to a head in late 800. In 799, Pope Leo III had been mistreated by the Romans, who tried to put out his eyes and tear out his tongue. Leo escaped, and fled to Charlemagne at Paderborn, asking him to intervene in Rome and restore him. Charlemagne, advised by Alcuin of York, agreed to travel to Rome, doing so in November 800 and holding a council on December 1. On December 23 Leo swore an oath of innocence. At Mass, on Christmas Day (December 25), when Charlemagne knelt the altar to pray, the pope crowned him Imperator Romanorum ("Emperor of the Romans") in Saint Peter's Basilica. In so doing, the pope was effectively attempting to transfer the office from Constantinople to Charles. Einhard says that Charlemagne was ignorant of the pope's intent and did not want any such coronation:
[H]e at first had such an aversion that he declared that he would not have set foot in the Church the day that they [the imperial titles] were conferred, although it was a great feast-day, if he could have foreseen the design of the Pope.
Many modern scholars suggest that Charlemagne was indeed aware of the coronation; certainly he cannot have missed the bejeweled crown waiting on the altar when he came to pray. In any event, he would now use these circumstances to claim that he was the renewer of the Roman Empire, which had apparently fallen into degradation under the Byzantines. However, Charles would after 806 style himself, not Imperator Romanorum ("Emperor of the Romans", a title reserved for the Byzantine emperor), but rather Imperator Romanum gubernans Imperium ("Emperor ruling the Roman Empire").
The Iconoclasm of the Isaurian Dynasty and resulting religious conflicts with the Empress Irene, sitting on the throne in Constantinople in 800, were probably the chief causes of the pope's desire to formally acclaim Charles as Roman Emperor. He also most certainly desired to increase the influence of the papacy, honour his saviour Charlemagne, and solve the constitutional issues then most troubling to European jurists in an era when Rome was not in the hands of an emperor. Thus, Charlemagne's assumption of the imperial title was not an usurpation in the eyes of the Franks or Italians. It was, however, in Byzantium, where it was protested by Irene and her successor Nicephorus I — neither of whom had any great effect in enforcing their protests.
The Byzantines, however, still held several territories in Italy: Venice (what was left of the Exarchate of Ravenna), Reggio (in Calabria), Brindisi (in Apulia), and Naples (the Ducatus Neapolitanus). These regions remained outside of Frankish hands until 804, when the Venetians, torn by infighting, transferred their allegiance to the Iron Crown of Pippin, Charles' son. The Pax Nicephori ended. Nicephorus ravaged the coasts with a fleet and the only instance of war between the Byzantines and the Franks, as it was, began. It lasted until 810, when the pro-Byzantine party in Venice gave their city back to the Byzantine Emperor and the two emperors of Europe made peace: Charlemagne received the Istrian peninsula and in 812 Emperor Michael I Rhangabes recognised his status as Emperor.
Danish attacks
After the conquest of Nordalbingia, the Frankish frontier was brought into contact with Scandinavia. The pagan Danes, "a race almost unknown to his ancestors, but destined to be only too well known to his sons" as Charles Oman described them, inhabiting the Jutland peninsula had heard many stories from Widukind and his allies who had taken refuge with them about the dangers of the Franks and the fury which their Christian king could direct against pagan neighbours.
In 808, the king of the Danes, Godfred, built the vast Danevirke across the isthmus of Schleswig. This defence, last employed in the Danish-Prussian War of 1864, was at its beginning a 30 km long earthenwork rampart. The Danevirke protected Danish land and gave Godfred the opportunity to harass Frisia and Flanders with pirate raids. He also subdued the Frank-allied Wiltzes and fought the Abotrites.
Godfred invaded Frisia and joked of visiting Aachen, but was murdered before he could do any more, either by a Frankish assassin or by one of his own men. Godfred was succeeded by his nephew Hemming and he concluded the Treaty of Heiligen with Charlemagne in late 811.
Death


Persephone sarcophagus of Charlemagne
In 813, Charlemagne called Louis the Pious, king of Aquitaine, his only surviving legitimate son, to his court. There he crowned him with his own hands as co-emperor and sent him back to Aquitaine. He then spent the autumn hunting before returning to Aachen on 1 November. In January, he fell ill with pleurisy (Einhard 59). He took to his bed on 21 January and as Einhard tells it:
He died January twenty-eighth, the seventh day from the time that he took to his bed, at nine o'clock in the morning, after partaking of the Holy Communion, in the seventy-second year of his age and the forty-seventh of his reign.
He was buried on the day of his death, in Aachen Cathedral, although the cold weather and the nature of his illness made such a hurried burial unnecessary. A later story, told by Otho of Lomello, Count of the Palace at Aachen in the time of Otto III, would claim that he and Emperor Otto had discovered Charlemagne's tomb: the emperor, they claimed, was seated upon a throne, wearing a crown and holding a sceptre, his flesh almost entirely incorrupt. In 1165, Frederick I re-opened the tomb again, and placed the emperor in a sarcophagus beneath the floor of the cathedral.[7] In 1215 Frederick II would re-inter him in a casket made of gold and silver.
Charlemagne's death greatly affected many of his subjects, particularly those of the literary clique who had surrounded him at Aachen. An anonymous monk of Bobbio lamented:
“ From the lands where the sun rises to western shores, People are crying and wailing...the Franks, the Romans, all Christians, are stung with mourning and great worry...the young and old, glorious nobles, all lament the loss of their Caesar...the world laments the death of Charles...O Christ, you who govern the heavenly host, grant a peaceful place to Charles in your kingdom. Alas for miserable me.[8]

He was succeeded by his surviving son, Louis, who had been crowned the previous year. His empire lasted only another generation in its entirety; its division, according to custom, between Louis's own sons after their father's death laid the foundation for the modern states of France and Germany.
Administration
As an administrator, Charlemagne stands out for his many reforms: monetary, governmental, military, cultural and ecclesiastical. He is the main protagonist of the "Carolingian Renaissance".
Economic and monetary reforms


Monogram of Charlemagne, from the subscription of a royal diploma: "Signum (monogr.: KAROLVS) Caroli gloriosissimi regis"
Charlemagne had an important role in determining the immediate economic future of Europe. Pursuing his father's reforms, Charlemagne abolished the monetary system based on the gold sou, and he and the Anglo-Saxon King Offa of Mercia took up the system set in place by Pippin. There were strong pragmatic reasons for this abandonment of a gold standard, notably a shortage of gold itself, a direct consequence of the conclusion of peace with Byzantium and the ceding of Venice and Sicily, and the loss of their trade routes to Africa and to the east. This standardisation also had the effect of economically harmonising and unifying the complex array of currencies in use at the commencement of his reign, thus simplifying trade and commerce.
He established a new standard, the livre carolinienne (from the Latin libra, the modern pound), and based upon a pound of silver – a unit of both money and weight – which was worth 20 sous (from the Latin solidus (which was primarily an accounting device, and never actually minted), the modern shilling) or 240 deniers (from the Latin denarius, the modern penny). During this period, the livre and the sou were counting units, only the denier was a coin of the realm.
Charlemagne instituted principles for accounting practice by means of the Capitulare de villis of 802, which laid down strict rules for the way in which incomes and expenses were to be recorded.
The lending of money for interest was prohibited, strengthened in 814, when Charlemagne introduced the Capitulary for the Jews, a draconian prohibition on Jews engaging in money-lending.
In addition to this macro-management of the economy of his empire, Charlemagne also performed a significant number of acts of micro-management, such as direct control of prices and levies on certain goods and commodities.
Charlemagne applied the system to much of the European continent, and Offa's standard was voluntarily adopted by much of England. After Charlemagne's death, continental coinage degraded and most of Europe resorted to using the continued high quality English coin until about 1100.
Education reforms
A part of Charlemagne's success as warrior and administrator can be traced to his admiration for learning. His reign and the era it ushered in are often referred to as the Carolingian Renaissance because of the flowering of scholarship, literature, art, and architecture which characterise it. Charlemagne, brought into contact with the culture and learning of other countries (especially Visigothic Spain, Anglo-Saxon England and Lombard Italy) due to his vast conquests, greatly increased the provision of monastic schools and scriptoria (centres for book-copying) in Francia. Most of the surviving works of classical Latin were copied and preserved by Carolingian scholars. Indeed, the earliest manuscripts available for many ancient texts are Carolingian. It is almost certain that a text which survived to the Carolingian age survives still. The pan-European nature of Charlemagne's influence is indicated by the origins of many of the men who worked for him: Alcuin, an Anglo-Saxon from York; Theodulf, a Visigoth, probably from Septimania; Paul the Deacon, Lombard; Peter of Pisa and Paulinus of Aquileia, Italians; and Angilbert, Angilramm, Einhard and Waldo of Reichenau, Franks.
Charlemagne took a serious interest in scholarship, promoting the liberal arts at the court, ordering that his children and grandchildren be well-educated, and even studying himself under the tutelage of Paul the Deacon, from whom he learned grammar, Alcuin, with whom he studied rhetoric, dialect and astronomy (he was particularly interested in the movements of the stars), and Einhard, who assisted him in his studies of arithmetic. His great scholarly failure, as Einhard relates, was his inability to write: when in his old age he began attempts to learn – practicing the formation of letters in his bed during his free time on books and wax tablets he hid under his pillow – "his effort came too late in life and achieved little success", and his ability to read – which Einhard is silent about, and which no contemporary source supports – has also been called into question.[9]
Writing reforms


Page from the Lorsch Gospels of Charlemagne's reign
During Charles' reign, the Roman half uncial script and its cursive version, which had given rise to various continental minuscule scripts, were combined with features from the insular scripts that were being used in Irish and English monasteries. Carolingian minuscule was created partly under the patronage of Charlemagne. Alcuin of York, who ran the palace school and scriptorium at Aachen, was probably a chief influence in this. The revolutionary character of the Carolingian reform, however, can be over-emphasised; efforts at taming the crabbed Merovingian and Germanic hands had been underway before Alcuin arrived at Aachen. The new minuscule was disseminated first from Aachen, and later from the influential scriptorium at Tours, where Alcuin retired as an abbot.
Political reforms
Charlemagne engaged in many reforms of Frankish governance, but he continued also in many traditional practices, such as the division of the kingdom among sons.
Organisation
Main article: Government of the Carolingian Empire
The Carolingian king exercised the bannum, the right to rule and command. He had supreme jurisdiction in judicial matters, made legislation, led the army, and protected both the Church and the poor. His administration was an attempt to organise the kingdom, church and nobility around him, however, it was entirely dependent upon the efficiency, loyalty and support of his subjects.
Imperial coronation


Throne of Charlemagne in Aachen Cathedral
Historians have debated for centuries whether Charlemagne was aware of the Pope's intent to crown him Emperor prior to the coronation (Charlemagne declared that he would not have entered Saint Peter's had he known), but that debate has often obscured the more significant question of why the Pope granted the title and why Charlemagne chose to accept it once he did.
Roger Collins points out (Charlemagne, pg. 147) "That the motivation behind the acceptance of the imperial title was a romantic and antiquarian interest in reviving the Roman empire is highly unlikely." For one thing, such romance would not have appealed either to Franks or Roman Catholics at the turn of the ninth century, both of whom viewed the Classical heritage of the Roman Empire with distrust. The Franks took pride in having "fought against and thrown from their shoulders the heavy yoke of the Romans" and "from the knowledge gained in baptism, clothed in gold and precious stones the bodies of the holy martyrs whom the Romans had killed by fire, by the sword and by wild animals", as Pippin III described it in a law of 763 or 764 (Collins 151). Furthermore, the new title — carrying with it the risk that the new emperor would "make drastic changes to the traditional styles and procedures of government" or "concentrate his attentions on Italy or on Mediterranean concerns more generally" (Collins 149) — risked alienating the Frankish leadership.
For both the Pope and Charlemagne, the Roman Empire remained a significant power in European politics at this time, and continued to hold a substantial portion of Italy, with borders not very far south of the city of Rome itself — this is the empire historiography has labelled the Byzantine Empire, for its capital was Constantinople (ancient Byzantium) and its people and rulers were Greek; it was a thoroughly Hellenic state. Indeed, Charlemagne was usurping the prerogatives of the Roman Emperor in Constantinople simply by sitting in judgement over the Pope in the first place:
By whom, however, could he [the Pope] be tried? Who, in other words, was qualified to pass judgement on the Vicar of Christ? In normal circumstances the only conceivable answer to that question would have been the Emperor at Constantinople; but the imperial throne was at this moment occupied by Irene. That the Empress was notorious for having blinded and murdered her own son was, in the minds of both Leo and Charles, almost immaterial: it was enough that she was a woman. The female sex was known to be incapable of governing, and by the old Salic tradition was debarred from doing so. As far as Western Europe was concerned, the Throne of the Emperors was vacant: Irene's claim to it was merely an additional proof, if any were needed, of the degradation into which the so-called Roman Empire had fallen.
—John Julius Norwich, Byzantium: The Early Centuries, pg. 378


Coronation of an idealised king, depicted in the Sacramentary of Charles the Bald (about 870)
For the Pope, then, there was "no living Emperor at the that time" (Norwich 379), though Henri Pirenne (Mohammed and Charlemagne, pg. 234n) disputes this saying that the coronation "was not in any sense explained by the fact that at this moment a woman was reigning in Constantinople." Nonetheless, the Pope took the extraordinary step of creating one. The papacy had since 727 been in conflict with Irene's predecessors in Constantinople over a number of issues, chiefly the continued Byzantine adherence to the doctrine of iconoclasm, the destruction of Christian images; while from 750, the secular power of the Byzantine Empire in central Italy had been nullified. By bestowing the Imperial crown upon Charlemagne, the Pope arrogated to himself "the right to appoint ... the Emperor of the Romans, ... establishing the imperial crown as his own personal gift but simultaneously granting himself implicit superiority over the Emperor whom he had created.". And "because the Byzantines had proved so unsatisfactory from every point of view—political, military and doctrinal—he would select a westerner: the one man who by his wisdom and statesmanship and the vastness of his dominions ... stood out head and shoulders above his contemporaries.".
With Charlemagne's coronation, therefore, "the Roman Empire remained, so far as either of them [Charlemagne and Leo] were concerned, one and indivisible, with Charles as its Emperor", though there can have been "little doubt that the coronation, with all that it implied, would be furiously contested in Constantinople." (Norwich, Byzantium: The Apogee, pg. 3) How realistic either Charlemagne or the Pope felt it to be that the people of Constantinople would ever accept the King of the Franks as their Emperor, we cannot know; Alcuin speaks hopefully in his letters of an Imperium Christianum ("Christian Empire"), wherein, "just as the inhabitants of the [Roman Empire] had been united by a common Roman citizenship", presumably this new empire would be united by a common Christian faith (Collins 151), certainly this is the view of Pirenne when he says "Charles was the Emperor of the ecclesia as the Pope conceived it, of the Roman Church, regarded as the universal Church" (Pirenne 233).


19th century depiction of the imperial coronation of Charlemagne
What we do know, from the Byzantine chronicler Theophanes (Collins 153), is that Charlemagne's reaction to his coronation was to take the initial steps toward securing the Constantinopolitan throne by sending envoys of marriage to Irene, and that Irene reacted somewhat favorably to them. Only when the people of Constantinople reacted to Irene's failure to immediately rebuff the proposal by deposing her and replacing her with one of her ministers, Nicephorus I, did Charlemagne drop any ambitions toward the Byzantine throne and begin minimising his new Imperial title, and instead return to describing himself primarily as rex Francorum et Langobardum.
The title of emperor remained in his family for years to come, however, as brothers fought over who had the supremacy in the Frankish state. The papacy itself never forgot the title nor abandoned the right to bestow it. When the family of Charles ceased to produce worthy heirs, the pope gladly crowned whichever Italian magnate could best protect him from his local enemies. This devolution led, as could have been expected, to the dormancy of the title for almost forty years (924-962). Finally, in 962, in a radically different Europe from Charlemagne's, a new Roman Emperor was crowned in Rome by a grateful pope. This emperor, Otto the Great, brought the title into the hands the kings of Germany for almost a millennium, for it was to become the Holy Roman Empire, a true imperial successor to Charles, if not Augustus.
Divisio regnorum
In 806, Charlemagne first made provision for the traditional division of the empire on his death. For Charles the Younger he designated Austrasia and Neustria, Saxony, Burgundy, and Thuringia. To Pippin he gave Italy, Bavaria, and Swabia. Louis received Aquitaine, the Spanish March, and Provence. There was no mention of the imperial title however, which has led to the suggestion that, at that particular time, Charlemagne regarded the title as an honorary achievement which held no hereditary significance.
This division may have worked, but it was never to be tested. Pippin died in 810 and Charles in 811. Charlemagne then reconsidered the matter, and in 813, crowned his youngest son, Louis, co-emperor and co-King of the Franks, granting him a half-share of the empire and the rest upon Charlemagne's own death. The only part of the Empire which Louis was not promised was Italy, which Charlemagne specifically bestowed upon Pippin's illegitimate son Bernard.
Cultural significance


The Coronation of Charlemagne, by assistants of Raphael , circa 1516-1517
Charlemagne had an immediate afterlife. The author of the Visio Karoli Magni written around 865 uses facts gathered apparently from Einhard and his own observations on the decline of Charlemagne's family after the dissensions of civil war (840–43) as the basis for a visionary tale of Charles' meeting with a prophetic spectre in a dream.
Charlemagne, being a model knight as one of the Nine Worthies, enjoyed an important afterlife in European culture. One of the great medieval literary cycles, the Charlemagne cycle or the Matter of France, centres on the deeds of Charlemagne—the King with the Grizzly Beard of Roland fame—and his historical commander of the border with Brittany, Roland, and the paladins who are analogous to the knights of the Round Table or King Arthur's court. Their tales constitute the first chansons de geste.
Charlemagne himself was accorded sainthood inside the Holy Roman Empire after the twelfth century. His canonisation by Antipope Paschal III, to gain the favour of Frederick Barbarossa in 1165, was never recognised by the Holy See, which annulled all of Paschal's ordinances at the Third Lateran Council in 1179. However, he has been acknowledged as cultus confirmed.
Charlemagne is sometimes credited with supporting the insertion of the filioque into the Nicene Creed. The Franks had inherited a Visigothic tradition of referring to the Holy Spirit as deriving from God the Father and Son (Filioque), and under Charlemagne, the Franks challenged the 381 Council of Constantinople proclamation that the Holy Spirit proceeded from the Father alone. Pope Leo III rejected this notion, and had the Nicene Creed carved into the doors of Old St. Peter's Basilica without the offending phrase; the Frankish insistence lead to bad relations between Rome and Francia. Later, the Roman Catholic Church would adopt the phrase, leading to dispute between Rome and Constantinople. Some see this as one of many pre-cursors to the East-West Schism centuries later.[10]
In the Divine Comedy the spirit of Charlemagne appears to Dante in the Heaven of Mars, among the other "warriors of the faith".
According to folk etymology, Charlemagne was commemorated in the old name Charles's Wain for the Big Dipper in the constellation of Ursa Major.
French volunteers in the Wehrmacht and later Waffen-SS during the World War II were organised in a unit called 33rd Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS Charlemagne (1st French). A German Waffen-SS unit used "Karl der Große" for some time in 1943, but then chose the name 10th SS Panzer Division Frundsberg instead.
The city of Aachen has, since 1949, awarded an international prize (called the Karlspreis der Stadt Aachen) in honour of Charlemagne. It is awarded annually to "personages of merit who have promoted the idea of western unity by their political, economic and literary endeavours."[11] Winners of the prize include Count Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi, the founder of the pan-European movement, Alcide De Gasperi, and Winston Churchill.
Charlemagne is memorably quoted by Dr Henry Jones Sr. (played by Sean Connery) in the film, Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade. Immediately after using his umbrella to induce a flock of seagulls to smash through the glass cockpit of a pursuing German fighter plane, Henry Jones remarks "I suddenly remembered my Charlemagne: 'Let my armies be the rocks and the trees and the birds in the sky'." Despite the quote's popularity since the movie, there is no evidence that Charlemagne actually said this.[12]
The Economist, the weekly news and international affairs newspaper, features a one page article every week entitled "Charlemagne", focusing on European government.
Family
Marriages and heirs
Charlemagne had twenty children over the course of his life with eight of his ten known wives or concubines.
• His first relationship was with Himiltrude. The nature of this relationship is variously described as concubinage, a legal marriage or as a Friedelehe.[13] Charlemagne put her aside when he married Desiderata. The union produced two children:
o Amaudru, a daughter[14]
o Pippin the Hunchback (c. 769-811)
• After her, his first wife was Desiderata, daughter of Desiderius, king of the Lombards, married in 770, annulled in 771
• His second wife was Hildegard (757 or 758-783), married 771, died 783. By her he had nine children:
o Charles the Younger (c.772-4 December 811), Duke of Maine, and crowned King of the Franks on 25 December 800
o Carloman, renamed Pippin (April 773-8 July 810), King of Italy
o Adalhaid (774), who was born whilst her parents were on campaign in Italy. She was sent back to Francia, but died before reaching Lyons
o Rotrude (or Hruodrud) (775-6 June 810)
o Louis (778-20 June 840), twin of Lothair, King of Aquitaine since 781, crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 813, senior Emperor from 814
o Lothair (778-6 February 779/780), twin of Louis, he died in infancy[15]
o Bertha (779-826)
o Gisela (781-808)
o Hildegarde (782-783)
• His third wife was Fastrada, married 784, died 794. By her he had:
o Theodrada (b.784), abbess of Argenteuil
o Hiltrude (b.787)
• His fourth wife was Luitgard, married 794, died childless
Concubinages and illegitimate children
• His first known concubine was Gersuinda. By her he had:
o Adaltrude (b.774)
• His second known concubine was Madelgard. By her he had:
o Ruodhaid (775-810), abbess of Faremoutiers
• His third known concubine was Amaltrud of Vienne. By her he had:
o Alpaida (b.794)
• His fourth known concubine was Regina. By her he had:
o Drogo (801-855), Bishop of Metz from 823 and abbot of Luxeuil Abbey
o Hugh (802-844), archchancellor of the Empire
• His fifth known concubine was Ethelind. By her he had:
o Richbod (805-844), Abbott of Saint-Riquier
o Theodoric (b. 807)
 
King Charlemange Emperor of the West (I40787)
 
500 Charles "Chuck" or "Skippy" Edward Hattaway - Chuck was born and lived his entire life in Macon, GA. After a courageous 12 year battle with cancer, Chuck passed away peacefully at home surrounded by his loving family/friends. Friends and family are invited to attend the celebration of Chuck?s life with full military honors on Friday, August 12, 2016 at 11:00AM at Hart?s Mortuary at the Cupola, 6324 Peake Road, Macon GA 31210. Chuck?s Pastor and friend of over 16 years, Dr. Charles Michael Blizzard, will officiate. Interment will be at Glen Haven Memorial Gardens, in the Veteran?s Section. Visitation will be held from 6 ? 8 pm, Thursday, August 11, 2016 at Hart?s at the Cupola.

Chuck attended Virgil Powers Grammar School. He was a very active member of the Boys Club of Macon. He served as Sheriff for A Day and was briefed by then Lt Governor Walt Whitman as part of the annual Optimist International Youth Appreciation Week. He participated in many activities at the Boys Club placing 2nd in the Ping Pong Tournament. Chuck graduated from Lanier High School. After two years of service in the US Army (during the Vietnam Era) he worked as a Yard Clerk at Norfolk Southern Railway.

Chuck loved children and baseball; therefore, it was natural that he started coaching Little League early in his life. He coached while at Fort Knox Army base; he coached many years at Western Little League and South Macon Boy?s Baseball. If he ever found out a boy or girl could not play because their parents could not afford to pay the entry fee, he always made sure the child did get to play. He also loved bowling and participated in many leagues and many tournaments. He carried a 200+ average most of the time; but, his love was the many friends he had at the bowling centers. During the last few years, when able he loved attending the Macon Mayhem Hockey Games. A special thanks Milton McBryant and Mike Mathes who made that possible.

Chuck loved working in his shop. He made so many Christmas Yard Art pieces that it took two days to arrange the display each year. He also loved having the open house each year so that family and friends could enjoy the yard art (especially the life size sleigh) and the Fellowship. Chuck touched the lives of many people with his smile and generosity. Over the years, he made over 300 rocking chairs for babies and toddlers. Each chair was made with love and precision that only Chuck?s touch could achieve. The family is asking if he made a chair for you or someone in your family, please bring a picture of the child with the chair to the visitation to be added to a special board furnished for the occasion.

Chuck was a member of Second Baptist Church of Macon from early childhood until March 2000 when he moved his membership to Cornerstone Baptist Church. From the time Chuck joined Cornerstone, his love for Jesus grew more and more. One of his favorite passages was what Chuck referred to as the Lord?s Prayer (when Jesus prayed for himself, the disciples and the believers) ? John 17. He became active in many ways from cooking chicken on the grill (he helped design the grill), teaching Sunday school, filling-in when the Pastor had to be out and providing a sermon, assisting in funeral services, and serving as Vice-Chair of the Deacons. He loved to teach about Jesus. He painted walls, help build a deck, help raise money for special projects and benevolence issues as they came up. His family grew to include the church members and friends of Cornerstone. He loved his Savior, his church, his Pastor, and he loved each of the members dearly. And lest we forget, the ladies of church that his wife fondly referred to as his ?harem?. What a fun time he and those special ladies have had!!!

He was one of three children born to the late Charlie and Leola Hattaway. Chuck will forever be remembered by his wife of over 48 years, Gaye Chafin Hattaway; his children, whom he loved unconditionally, Tracy (Connie) Hattaway and Lisa (Joe) Seagraves, his heart and pride was his treasured granddaughters Bailey and Hunter Hattaway and Alli Mathes; his sisters Charleene Kitchens and Sandra (Ralph) Strong; his niece Terri Brown; his step-grandchildren Haylee (Jon) Lenz, Jesse (Tara) Law, Brett (Kaitlyn) Seagraves, Brandon Seagraves, step-great grandchildren Blake Law, Bella Lenz, Vivian Law and Macy Seagraves, along with countless other friends and family whom were blessed to know him.

The family requests in lieu of flowers, donations be sent to Cornerstone at the Cupola, P O Box 26489, Macon, GA 31221. The family would like to thank the Patriot Guard Riders of Georgia, the Military Honor Guard, Pine Pointe Hospice, DLA Group Hug, and family and friends who supported them during the last months of his life. Honorary Pall bearers are the deacons of Cornerstone Baptist Church. We are praising God for Chuck?s life and that he is now healed and living with his Lord and Savior.

Register at www.hartsmort.com.
Hart?s Mortuary at the Cupola has charge of the arrangements.

Visitation
Thursday, August 11, 2016
6:00 PM - 8:00 PM

Hart's at the Cupola
6324 Peake Road
Macon, Georgia 31210 
HATTAWAY, Charles Edward (I671953476)
 

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